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& the Australian Exploring Expedition of 1860

Andrew Jackson
London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1863. (Ferguson 10857)


Appendix A - Instructions to Leader
Appendix B - King's Narrative
Appendix C - Mr Burke's Notes of the Expedition
Appendix D - Copy of a Letter from the Colonial Office to Major Burke, 3rd Regiment
Appendix E - Extracts from a Letter from Sir Henry Barkly to Major Burke
Appendix F - Extract from a Resolution passed by the Grand Jury of the County of Galway
Appendix G - Extract of Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Royal Geographical Society

Instructions to Leader

Exploration Committee, Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne.
August 18, 1860.

I am directed by the Committee to convey to you the instructions and views which have been adopted in connection with the duties which devolve upon you as Leader of the party now organised to explore the interior of Australia.

The Committee having decided on Cooper's Creek, of Sturt's, as the basis of your operations, request that you will proceed thither, form a depot of provisions and stores, and make arrangements for keeping open a communication in your rear to the Darling, if in your opinion advisable; and thence to Melbourne, so that you maybe enabled to keep the Committee informed of your movements, and receive in return the assistance in stores and advice of which you may stand in need. Should you find that a better communication can be made by way of the South Australian Police Station, near Mount Serle, you will avail yourself of that means of writing to the Committee.

In your route to Cooper's Creek, you will avail yourself of any opportunity that may present itself for examining and reporting on, the character of the country east and west of the Darling.

You will make arrangements for carrying the stores to a point opposite Mount McPherson, which seems to the Committee to be the best point of departure from this river for Cooper's Creek ; and while the main body of the party is proceeding to that point you may have farther opportunities of examining the country on either side of your route.

In your further progress from Mount McPherson towards Cooper's Creek, the Committee also desires that you should make further detours to the right and left with the same object.

The object of the Committee in directing you to Cooper's Creek is, that you should explore the country intervening between it and Leichhardt's track, south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, avoiding as far as practicable, Sturt's route on the west, and Gregory's, down the Victoria, on the east.

To this object the Committee wishes you to devote your energies in the first instance; but should you determine the impracticability of this route you are desired to turn west-ward into the country recently discovered by Stuart, and connect his farthest point northward with Gregory's farthest Southern Exploration in 1856 (Mount Wilson).

In proceeding from Cooper's Creek to Stuart's Country, you may find the Salt Marshes an obstacle to the progress of the camels; if so, it is supposed you will be able to avoid these marshes by turning to the northward as far as Eyre's Creek., where there is permanent water, and going then west- ward to Stuart's Farthest.

Should you, however, fail in connecting the two points of Stuart's and Gregory's Farthest, or should you ascertain that this space has been already traversed, you are requested if possible to connect your explorations with those of the younger Gregory, in the vicinity of Mount Gould, and thence you might proceed to Sharks Bay, or down the River Murchison, to the settlements in Western Australia.

This country would afford the means of recruiting the strength of your party, and you might, after a delay of five or six months, be enabled, with the knowledge of the country you shall have previously acquired, to return by a more direct route through South Australia to Melbourne.

If you should, however, have been successful in connecting Stuart's with Gregory's farthest point in 1856 (Mount Wilson), and your party should be equal to the task, you would probably find it possible from thence to reach the country discovered by the younger Gregory.

The Committee is fully aware of the difficulty of the country you are called on to traverse; and in giving you these instructions has placed these routes before you more as an indication of what it has been deemed desirable to have accomplished than as indicating any exact course for you to pursue.

The Committee considers you will find a better and a safer guide in the natural features of the country through which you will have to pass. For all useful and practical purposes it will 'be better for you and the object of future settlement that you should follow the watercourses and the country yielding herbage, than pursue any route which the Committee might be able to sketch out from an imperfect map of Australia.

The Committee entrusts you with the largest discretion as regards the forming of depots, and your movements generally, but request that you will mark your routes as permanently as possible, by leaving records, sowing seeds, building cairns, and marking trees at as many points as possible, consistently with your various other duties.

With reference to financial subjects, you will be furnished with a letter of authority to give orders on the Treasurer for the payment of any stores or their transport cattle, sheep, or horses you may require; and you will not fail to furnish the Treasurer from time to time with detailed accounts of the articles for which you have given such orders in payment.

Each person of the party will be allowed to give authority for half of his salary being paid into any bank, or to any person he may appoint to receive the same; provided a certificate is forwarded from you to the effect that he has efficiently discharged his duty.

The Committee requests that you will make arrangements for an exact account being taken of the stores and their expenditure by the person you place in charge of them.

The Committee also requests that you would address all your communications on subjects connected with the exploration to the Honorary Secretary; and that all persons acting with you should forward their communications on the same subject through you.

You will cause full reports to be furnished by your officers on any subject of interest, and forward them to Melbourne as often as may be practicable without retarding the progress of the expedition.

The Committee has caused the inclosed set of instructions to be drawn up, having relation to each department of science; and you are requested to hand each gentleman a copy of the part more particularly relating to his department.

I have the honour to be,. Sir, Your most obedient servant,
(Signed) John Macadam, Honorary Secretary, E.C., R.S.V.

[To] Robert O'Hara Burke, Esq.
Leader, Victorian Exploring Expedition.

King's Narrative.

Mr Burke, Mr Wills, and I reached the depot at Cooper's Creek, on April 21st, about half-past seven in the evening with two camels - all that remained of the six Mr Burke took with him. All the provisions we then had consisted of one and a half pound of dried meat. We found the party had gone the same day; and looking about for any mark they might have left, found the tree with "DIG, April 21". Mr Wills, said the party had left for the Darling. We dug and found the plant of stores; Mr Burke took the papers out of the bottle, and then asked each of us whether we were able to proceed up the creek in pursuit of the party; we said not, and he then said that he thought it his duty to ask us but that he himself was unable to do so, but that he had decided upon trying to make Mount Hopeless, as he had been assured by the committee in Melbourne, that there was a cattle station within 150 miles of Cooper's Creek. Mr Wills was not inclined to follow this plan, but wished to go down by our old track, but at last gave in to Mr Burke's wishes; I also wished to go down by our old track.

We remained four or five days to recruit, making preparations to go down the creek by stages of four or five miles a day, and Mr Burke placed a paper in the plant stating what were our plans. Travelling down the creek we got some fish from the natives; and some distance down one of the camels (Landa) got bogged, and although we remained there for a day and part of the next, trying to dig him out, we found our strength insufficient to do so. The evening of the second day we shot him as he lay, and having cut off as much meat as we could we lived on it while we stayed to dry the remained. Throwing all the least necessary things away, we made one load for the remaining camel (Rajah), and each of us carried a swag of about twenty-five pounds. We were then tracing down the branches of the creek running south, and found that they ran into earthy plains. We had understood that the creek along Gregory's path was continuous, and finding that all these creeks ran out into plains, Mr Burke returned, our camel being completely knocked up. We then intended to give the camel a spell for a few days, and to make a new attempt to push on forty or fifty miles tot he south in the hope of striking the creek.

During the time that the camel was being rested, Mr Burke and Mr Wills went in search of the natives, to endeavour to find out how the nardoo grew; having found their camp they obtained as much nardoo cake and fish as they could eat, but could not explain that they wished to be shown how to find the seed themselves; they returned on the third day bringing some fish and Nardoo cake with them. On the following day the camel Rajah seemed very ill, and I told Mr Burke, I thought he could not linger out more than four days, and as on the same evening, the poor brute was on the point of dying, Mr Burke ordered him to be shot; I did so, and we cut him up with two broken knives and a lancet; we cured the meat and planted it, and Mr Burke then made another attempt to find the Nardoo, taking me with him; we went down the creek expecting to find the natives at the camp where they had been last seen, but found that they had left, and not knowing whether that they had gone up or down the creek, we slept in their gunyahs that night, and on the following morning returned to Mr Wills.

The next day, Mr Burke, and I started up the creek, but could see nothing of them, and were  three days away, when we returned and remained three days in our camp with Mr Wills. We then made a plant of all the articles we could not carry with us, leaving five pounds of rice and a quantity of meat, and then followed up the creek to where there were some good native huts. We remained at that place a few days and finding that our provisions were beginning to run short, Mr Burke said, that we ought to do something, and that if we did not find nardoo, we should starve, and that he intended to save a little dried meat and rice to carry us to Mount Hopeless.

The three of us then came to the conclusion that it would be better to make a second attempt to reach Mount Hopeless as we were then as strong as we were likely to be, our daily allowance being then reduced. Mr Burke asked each of us whether we were willing to make another attempt to reach the South Australian settlements, and we decided on going; we took with us what remained of the provisions we had planted- two-and-a -half- pounds of Oatmeal, a small quantity of flour, and the dried meat; this with powder and shot and other small articles made up our swags thirty pounds each, and Mr Burke carried one Billy of water and I another. We had not gone far before we came on a flat, where I saw a plant growing which I took to be clover, and on looking closer saw the seed, and called out that I had found the Nardoo; they were very glad when I found it.

We traveled three days, and struck a watercourse coming south from Cooper's Creek; we traced this as it branched out and reformed in the plains, until we at last lost it in flat country; sandhills were in front of us, for which we made and traveled all day but found no water; we were all greatly fatigued, as our rations now consisted of only one small Johnny cake and three sticks of fried meat daily. We camped that evening about four O'clock, intending to push next day until two O'clock p.m., and then should we not find water, to return. We traveled and found no water, and the three of us sat down and rested for one hour and then turned back.

We all felt satisfied that had there been a few days' rain we could have got through: we were then, according to Mr Wills's calculation, forty-five miles from the creek. We traveled, on the day we turned back, very late, and the following evening reached the nearest water at the creek. We gathered some nardoo and boiled the seeds, as we were unable to pound them.

The following day we reached the main creek- and knowing where there was a. fine waterhole and native gunyahs, we went there intending to save what remained of our flour and dried meat for the purpose of making another attempt to reach Mount Hopeless. On the following day Mr Wills and I went out to gather nardoo, of which we obtained a supply sufficient for three days, and finding a pounding stone at the gunyahs, Mr Burke and l pounded the seed, which was such slow work that we were compelled to use half flour and half nardoo. Mr Burke and Mr Wills then went down the creek for the remainder of the dried meat which we had planted; and we had now all our things with us, gathering nardoo and living the best way we could. Mr Burke requested Mr Wills to go up the creek as far as the depot, and to place a note in the plant there, stating that we were then living on the creek, the former note having stated that we were on our road to South Australia. He also was to bury there the field-books of the journey to the Gulf. Before starting he got three pounds of flour and four pounds of pounded nardoo, and about a pound of meat, as he expected to be absent about eight days. During his absence I gathered nardoo and pounded it, as Mr Burke wished to lay in a supply in case of rain.    

A, few days after Mr Wills left, some natives came down the creek to fish at some waterholes near our camp. They were very civil to us at first and offered us some fish. On the second day they came again to fish, and Mr Burke took down two bags, which they filled for him. On the third day they gave us one bag of fish, and afterwards all came to our camp. We used to keep our ammunition and other articles in one gunyah and all three of us lived together in another. One of the natives took an oilcloth out of this gunyah, and Mr Burke seeing him run away with it followed him with his revolver and fired over his head, and upon this the native dropped the oilcloth; while he was away, the other blacks invited me away to a waterhole to eat fish, but I declined to do so as Mr Burke was absent, and a number of natives were about who would have taken all our things. When I refused, one took his boomerang and laid it over my shoulder, and then told me by signs that if I called out for Mr Burke (as I was doing) that he would strike me; upon this I got them all in front of the gunyah and fired a revolver over their head, but they did not seem at all afraid until I got out the gun, when they all ran away. Mr Burke hearing the report came back, and we saw no more of them until late that night, when they came with some, cooked fish and called out "white fellow."  Mr Burke, then went out with his revolver, and found a whole tribe coming down, all painted, and with fish in small nets carried by two men, Mr Burke went to meet them, and they wished to surround him; but he knocked as many of the nets of fish out of their hands as he could, and shouted out to me to fire. I did so, and they ran of. We collected five small nets of cooked fish. The reason he would not accept the fish from them was that he was afraid of being too friendly lest they should be always at our camp. We then lived on fish until Mr Wills returned. He told us that he had met the natives soon after leaving us, and that they were very kind to him, and had given him plenty to eat both on going up and returning. He seemed to consider that he should have very little difficulty in living with them, and as their camp was close to ours he returned to them the same day and found them very hospitable and friendly, keeping him with them two days. They then made signs to him to be off He came to us and narrated what had happened, but went back to them the following day, when they gave him his breakfast, but made signs for him to go away; he pretended not to understand them, and would not go, upon which they made signs that they were going up the creek, and that he had better go down: they packed up and left the camp, giving Mr Wills a little nardoo to take to us.   

During his absence, while Mr Burke was cooking some fish during a strong wind, the flames caught the gunyah and burned so rapidly that we were unable not only to put it out but to save any of our things, excepting one revolver and a gun. Mr Wills having returned, it was decided to go up the creek and live with the natives if possible, as Mr Wills thought we should have but little difficulty in obtaining provisions from them if we camped on the opposite side of the creek to them. He said he knew where they were gone, so we packed up and started. Coming to the gunyahs where we expected to have found them, we were disappointed, and seeing a nardoo field close by halted, intending to make it our camp. For some time we were employed gathering nardoo, and laying up a supply. Mr Wills and I used to collect and carry home a bag each day, and Mr Burke generally pounded sufficient for our dinner during our absence; but Mr Wills found himself getting very weak, and was shortly unable to go out to gather nardoo as before, or even strong enough to pound it, so that in a few days he became almost helpless. I still continued gathering, and Mr Burke now also began to feel very weak, and said he could be of very little use in pounding; I had now to gather and pound for all three of us. I continued to do this for a few days; but finding my strength rapidly failing, my legs being very weak and painful, I was unable to go out for several days, and we were compelled to consume six days' stock which we had laid by. Mr Burke now proposed that I should gather as much as possible, in three days, and that with this supply we, should go in search of the natives - a plan which had been urged upon us by Mr Wills as the only chance of saving him and ourselves as well, as he clearly saw that I was no longer able to collect sufficient for our wants. Having collected the seed as proposed, and having pounded sufficient to last Mr Wills for eight days, and two days for ourselves, we placed water and firewood within his reach and started; before leaving him, however, Mr Burke asked him whether he still wished it, as under no other circumstance would he leave him, and Mr Wills again said that he looked on it as our only chance. He then gave Mr Burke. a letter and his watch for his father, and we buried the remainder of the field-books near the gunyah. Mr Wills said that in case of my surviving Mr Burke, he hoped that I would carry out his last wishes, in' giving the watch and letter to his father.

In travelling the first day, Mr Burke seemed very weak, and complained of great pain in his legs and back. On the second day he seemed to be better, and said that he thought he was getting stronger but on starting, did not go two miles before he said he could go no further. I persisted in his trying to go on, and managed to get him along several times, until I saw that he was almost knocked up, when he said he could not carry his swag, and threw all he had away. I also reduced mine, taking nothing but a gun and some powder and shot, and a small pouch and some matches. In starting again, we did not go far before Mr Burke said we should halt for the night; but as the place was close to a large sheet of water, and exposed to the wind, I prevailed on him to go a little further, to the next reach of water, where we camped. We searched about and found a few small patches of nardoo, which I collected and pounded, and with a crow, which I shot, made a good evening's meal. From the time we halted Mr Burke seemed to be getting worse, although he ate his supper; he said he felt convinced he could not last many hours, and gave me his watch, which he said belonged to the committee,  and a pocket-book to give to Sir William Stawell,  and in which he wrote some notes. He then said to me, 'I hope you will remain with me here till I am quite dead - it is a comfort to know that some one is by; but, when I am dying, it is my wish that you should place the pistol in my right hand, and that you leave me unburied as I lie.'  That night he spoke very little, and the following morning I found him speechless, or nearly so, and about eight o' clock he expired. I remained a few hours there, but as I saw there was no use remaining longer I went up the creek in search of the natives. I felt very lonely, and at night usually slept in deserted wurleys belonging to the natives. Two days after leaving the spot where Mr Burke died, I found some gunyahs where the natives had deposited a bag of nardoo, sufficient to last me a fortnight, and three, bundles containing various articles. I also shot a crow that evening; but was in great dread that the natives would come and deprive me of the nardoo. 
I remained there two days to recover my strength, and then returned to Mr Wills. I took back three crows; but found him lying dead in his gunyah, and the natives had been there, and had  taken away some of his clothes. I buried the corpse with sand, and remained there some days, but finding that my stock of nardoo was running short, and as I was unable to gather it, I tracked the natives who had been to the camp by their footprints in the sand, and went some distance down the creek shooting, crows and hawks on the road. The natives, hearing the report of the gun, came to meet me, and took me, with them to their camp, giving me nardoo and fish. Then they took the birds I had shot and cooked them for me, and afterwards showed me a gunyah where I was to sleep with three of the single men. The following morning they commenced talking to me, and putting one finger on the ground and covering it with sand, at the same time pointing to the creek saying 'white fellow,' which I understood to mean that one white man was dead. From this I knew that they were the tribe 'who had taken Mr Wills's clothes. They then asked me where the third white man was, and I also made the sign of putting two fingers on the ground and covering them with sand, at the same time pointing up the creek. They appeared to feel great compassion for me when they understood that I was alone on the creek, and gave me plenty to eat. After being four days with them, I saw that they were becoming tired of me, and they made signs that they were going up the creek and that I had better go downwards; -but I pretended not to understand them. 

The same day they shifted camp, and I followed them, and on reaching their camp I shot some crows, which pleased them so much that they made me a breakwind in the centre of their camp, and came and sat round me until such time as the crows were cooked, when they assisted me to eat them. The same day one of the women, to whom I had given part of a crow, came and gave me a ball of nardoo, saying that she would give me more only she had such a sore arm that she was unable to pound. She showed me a sore on her arm, and the thought struck me that I would boil some water in the billy and wash her arm with a sponge. During the operation, the whole tribe sat round and were muttering one to another. Her husband sat down by her side, and she was crying  all the time. After I had washed it, I touched it with some nitrate of silver, when she began to yell, and ran off, crying out 'Mokow! Mokow!' (Fire!  Fire!). From this time, she and her husband used to give me a small quantity of nardoo both night and morning, and whenever the tribe was about going on a fishing excursion he used to give me notice to go with them. They also used to assist me in making a wurley or breakwind whenever they shifted camp. I generally shot a crow or a hawk, and gave it to them in return for these little services.

Every four or five days the tribe would surround me and ask whether I intended going up or down the creek; at last I made them understand that if they went up I should go up the creek, and if they went down I should also go down; and from this time they seemed to look upon me as one of themselves, and supplied me with fish and nardoo regularly. They were very anxious, however, to know where Mr Burke lay, and one day when we were fishing in the waterholes close by, I took them to the spot. On seeing his remains, the whole party wept bitterly, and covered them with bushes. After this, they were much kinder to me than before, and I always told them that the white men would be here before two moons; and in the evening when they came with nardoo and fish they used to talk about the 'white-fellows' coming, at the same time pointing to the  moon. I also told them they would receive many presents, and they constantly asked me for tomahawks, called by them.' Bomay Ko.' From this time to when the relief party arrived, a period of about a month, they treated me with uniform kindness, and looked upon me as one of themselves.'

The day on which I was released, one of the tribe who had been fishing came and told me that the 'white fellows' were coming, and the whole of the tribe who were then in camp sallied out in every direction to meet the party, while the man who had brought me the news took me over the creek where I shortly saw the party coming down.

Mr Burke's Notes of the Expedition.

These notes were often illegible, and in many places the pages of the book had been ripped and cut out. The book was evidently kept for rough memoranda.

The following extracts are from the memorandum book of Mr Burke. Mr Archer, to whom the task of transcribing it was intrusted, writes the following preface:

I went carefully through Burke's note-hook last night. It is an ordinary memorandum book, with a clasp, and a side pocket for a pencil. It is much dilapidated, and several of the leaves are tom out; some so torn had been written on. I have numbered these consecutively throughout. The following is a copy, letter for letter, and word for word, of all that remains of Burke's pencillings. I have queried all doubtful points:

No 69. line of cour i ing on bags l, 4, 19, 20, 11, 3. Think well before giving an answer, and never speak except from strong convictions.

16th December. - Left Depot 65, followed by the creek.

17th. - The same ; 66.

18th. - The same ; 67.

19th. - We made a (?) small creek, supposed to be Otto Era (?), or in the immediate neighbourhood of it. Good water. Camp 69.

20th. - Made a creek, where we found a great many natives; they presented us with fish, and offered their women. Camp 70.

21st. - Made another creek; Camp 71. Splendid water; fine feed for the camels; would be a very good place for a station. Since we have left Cooper's Creek we have travelled over a very fine sheep-grazing country, well watered, and in every respect well suited for occupation.

22nd December, 1860. - Camp 72. Encamped on the borders of the desert.

23rd. - Travelled day and night, and encamped in the night in the bed of a creek, as we supposed we were near water.

24th. - Encamped on the morning of this day on the banks of Gray's Creek, called after him because he was detached on horseback from the party, and found it good water. The third day without it. Now for a retrospective glance. We started from Cooper's Creek, Camp 66, with the intention of going through to Eyre's Creek without water. Loaded with 800 pints of water, four riding camels carried 130 pints, each horse 150, two pack camels 50 each, and five pints each man.

25th (Christmas Day). - Started at four A.M. from Gray's Creek, and arrived at a creek which appears to be quite as large as Cooper's Creek. At two P.M. Golah Sing gave some very decided hints about stopping by lying down under the trees. Splendid prospect.

26th December, 27th December, 28th December, 29th December. - Followed up the creek until it took a turn to the south-east, which I thought rather too much to put up with, therefore left it on the morning of the 30th December; 12.30, on the road. Started at seven o'clock; travelled eleven hours.

31st. - Started at 2.20; 16½ hours on the road. Travelled 13½ hours.

1st January. - Water.

2nd January. - From King's Creek ; 11 hours on the road. Started at seven; travelled nine and a half hours. Desert.

3rd. January. - Five started. Travelled 12 hours, no minutes.

4th. - Twelve hours on the road.

5th. - Water at Wills' or King's Creek. It is impossible to say the time we were up, for we had to load the camels, to pack and feed them, to watch them and the horse, and to look for water; but I am satisfied that the frame of man never was more severely taxed.

[Here follows an entry for March 28th, commencing thus:]
March 28th. - At the conclusion of...
[then some of the leaves appear to have been torn out from pages 43 to 55.]

13th January, 1861. - As I find it impossible to keep a regular diary, I shall jot down my ideas when I have an opportunity, and put the date. Upon two occasions, at Cooper's Creek and at King's Creek, on New Year's Day, whenever the natives tried to bully or bounce us, and were repulsed, although the leaders appeared to be in earnest, the followers, and particularly the young ones, laughed heartily, and seemed to be amused at their leaders' repulse. The old fellow at King's Creek, who stuck his spear into the ground, and threw dust in the air, when I fired off my pistol, ran off in the most undignified manner. Names for places : Thackeray, Barry, Bindon, Lyons, Forbes, Archer, Bennet, Colles, O. S. Nicholson, Wood, Wrixon, Cope, Turner, Scratchley, Ligar, Griffith, Green, Roe, , Hamilton, Archer, Colles.

18th January. - Still on the ranges; the camels sweating profusely from fear.

20th January. - I determined to-day to go straight at the ranges, and so far the experiment has succeeded well. The poor camels sweating and groaning, but we gave them a hot bath in Turner's Creek, which seemed to relieve them very much. At last through-the camels bleeding, sweating, and groaning.

[Leaves 35 to 39 torn out, and eight leaves preceding tom out; no marks of writing visible on the remnant. Leaves 24 to 33, both inclusive, blank on both sides.]

28th March. - At the conclusion of report, it would be well to say that we reached the sea, but we could not obtain a view of the open ocean, although we made every endeavour to do so. Leaving Carpentaria :-flour 83 lb., pork 3 lb., d. meat 35 lb., biscuits 12 lb., rice 12 lb., sugar 10 lb.

[Page 15 blank.].

Return party from Carpentaria arrived here last night, and found that the D. party had started on the same day. We proceed slowly down the creek, towards Adelaide, by Mount Hopeless, and shall endeavour to follow Gregory's track; but we are very weak, the camels are done up, and we shall not be able to travel faster than five miles a day at most. Gray died on the road from hunger and fatigue. We all suffered much from hunger, but the provisions left here will, I think, restore our strength. We have discovered a practicable route to Carpentaria, the principal portion of which lies in the 140th meridian of east longitude. Between this and the Stony Desert there is some good country; from there to the tropic, the country is dry and stony ; between the tropic and Carpentaria a considerable portion is rangy, but it is well watered and richly grassed.

[Pages 20 and 21 torn ; no writing apparent.]

[Pages 22 and 23 contain a memorandum of stores, but without any particular reference to time and place.]

Copy of a Letter from the Colonial Office to Major Burke, 3rd Regiment.

Downing Street, January 30, 1862.

I am directed by the Duke of Newcastle to transmit to you a copy of a despatch from the Governor of Victoria, in which he reports the melancholy death of your brother, Mr Robert Burke, and, with one exception, of his companions, on their return to the Colony, after accomplishing the object of their Exploring Expedition. The Duke of Newcastle has desired me to express to you, with what concern he has received this intelligence, and to assure you of his admiration of the noble efforts made by your brother to perform the arduous duty confided to his charge.

I am, sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed) Frederick Rogers.

[To] Major Burke.

Extracts from a Letter from Sir Henry Barkly, CB, Governor of Victoria to Major Burke, 3rd Regiment.

Government House, Melbourne,
November 25, 1861.

As your brother, Mr Robert O'Hara Burke, was on leave of absence from the service of this Government at the time of his lamented decease, as leader of the Exploring Expedition, by which the continent of Australia has first been crossed from sea to sea, I consider it my duty to communicate to you the particulars of the sad event, as well as of the honours that are about to be paid to his memory.


The liveliest sympathy was felt by the entire community on the receipt of the news……Both Houses of Parliament passed resolutions expressive of grief for the sufferings and death of the gallant explorers, and of their desire to do honour to their memory, by giving their remains, which will be brought down for the purpose, a public funeral, and erecting a monument over their tomb, for which two thousand pounds have been already appropriated.

This colony, indeed, may well be proud, not merely that such an achievement has been performed, but of the heroism and self-devotion exhibited in its performance; and I am sure that when the simple narrative of the explorers comes to be read in the mother country, it will be felt that Ireland never sent out a truer or a braver son than Robert O'Hara Burke, of whom you, as the head and representative of the family, will, I doubt not, hold as high account, as any of its gallant members who have fallen in the service of their Queen and country.

I have, &c.
(Signed) Henry Barkly,
Governor of Victoria.

Extract from a Resolution passed by the Grand Jury of the County of Galway.

Galway Spring Assizes, 1862.

Resolved - That this the Grand Inquest of his native county do not deem it right to separate without recording their high appreciation of the devoted heroism in Australia of the late lamented Robert O'Hara Burke.

One brother has already gone down to posterity as the hero of Silistria. (*Footnote; Query Giurgevo?).

Another has now solved the geographical problem of the interior of Australia, and hie name must be ever associated with the vast district of Carpentaria. And we trust that Parliament will duly appreciate such important and distinguished service.

(Signed) C J O'Kelly, Foreman.

Extract of Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Royal Geographical Society,
held at London, on Monday the 26th May, 1862.
(*Footnote; From the Times of 27th May, 1862).

Lord Ashburton, before he proceeded to award the medals, he might be allowed to say that they were not the gift of a set of private gentlemen, but that the Crown had selected the President and Fellows of the Royal Geographical Society to present the honours to those who had most distinguished themselves in the pursuit of geographical science. They had always been given with the strictest impartiality, and quite independent of any political bias. The noble lord then handed to the Duke of Newcastle the founder's gold medal, to be transmitted by him to the representative of the late Robert O'Hara Burke (Cheers).

The Duke of Newcastle, who was received with loud applause, said he assured the meeting that - he attended there in fulfilment of what he considered a public duty, at once painful and agreeable - painful because he received at the hands of the President this token of admiration of one of England's great men, for transmission not to him for whose merits it had been bestowed, and who was now cold on the shores of that great country on which he had conferred such great benefits, but to those relatives who, like the colony itself, must look back upon his memory with affectionate admiration. At the same time, it was a pleasurable duty, because it showed that this society, as well as the country at large, had not been insensible to the merits of the individual or the services he had rendered to science and civilization. These medals, as it had been correctly stated by the chairman, were not conferred at the option of private individuals, but by the Crown, through the instrumentality of the President and Fellows, of that society; but the medals must bear an additional value when it was recollected that they were not bestowed upon any arbitrary principles, but by gentlemen eminent for their knowledge and experience, and who were well calculated to appreciate the merit they rewarded. Standing before them as he did, intrusted by her Majesty with the seals of the Colonial Office, he felt bound to express his admiration of the colony of Victoria in instituting this Expedition. That was perhaps the one of the Australian colonies least interested in the result of Mr Burke's expedition; at the same time it entered upon it with that public spirit which had actuated this country in similar expeditions- a desire to benefit science and to extend civilization throughout Australia, of which the colony of Victoria formed so important a part. (Hear, hear). But if credit was due to Victoria for this, it was also due to that colony to acknowledge that it set on foot other expeditions when the fate of Mr Burke was held in the balance, and when it was hoped that expeditions might afford aid or probably effect his rescue. It would be unnecessary to say much upon the individual merits of Mr Burke, for most of those present had read that touching despatch of Sir Henry Barkly in which he narrated the circumstances of Mr Burke's untimely fate. In him they had lost a man as eminent, as gallant, and as great as that intrepid brother who perished on the banks of the Danube. (Cheers.) He felt certain that the society had done well in awarding its medal to so distinguished an explorer. It would not be proper for him to pledge the Colonial Office to anything on such an occasion, but he would say that on all such matters as that the authorities of that office looked to the Royal Geographical Society as a guide and instructor, and, although it might not be always possible to follow what was suggested, it would always be with great deference that they received suggestions, and with great reluctance that they were unable to carry them out. On the part of the friends of Mr Burke he thanked the society, and assured them that the medal should be duly transmitted to them. (Hear).

Lord Ashburton then presented to his Grace the gold watch which had been awarded to Mr King, the sole survivor of the Expedition under Burke.

The Duke of Newcastle said he should feel the greatest pleasure in transmitting the watch to King, who, he believed, was in the colony. The Marseilles mail would leave that day, and he would send it at once. Although King was not a leading spirit in the Expedition, they owed much to him, and if he had not survived, they would have received but little of the valuable information they now possessed.

Sir R Murchison was happy to announce that the Governor and Legislature of Victoria had granted to King a comfortable annuity for life. (Cheers.)

Lord Ashburton read a paper on the progress of geographical science, and Sir R Murchison, the course of a paper on Australia suggested that that portion which had been explored by Mr Burke should be hereafter called Burke's Land. (Cheers.)

The End.
London; Printed by Smith & Elder & Co Little Green Arbour Court, Old Bailey, E.C.

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