Thursday, 1 May 1862 -
We left Camp 59 yesterday morning at 9. When we had come about nine and a half miles in an easterly direction we crossed a creek with a northerly course. We intended striking the creek afterwards and unfortunately did not water the horses, but we got too far from it and neither found it nor water although we travelled till 9 p.m. We halted then, thinking the horses would probably find water which we thought was not far distant from us, having heard immediately before we encamped the quacking of ducks. We came today twenty-five miles in nearly an east-south-east direction. Our path lay over rich undulating country from which a number of hills were visible. The land was well grassed and thinly wooded at most places. At others it was scrubby, thereby detracting from its value for some time to come. Luckily the country we passed over after dark was thinly wooded. The last few miles we followed a creek up in search of water to this encampment, and this morning we fortunately found we were within a few hundred yards of a hole of water. The horses requiring rest after their long journey yesterday we remained here today. I sent Jemmy with one of the freshest of the horses to see how the country was watered to the east-south-east. On his return he reported having found water and old dray-marks about six and three-quarter miles easterly from our last camp. I made the meridian altitude of the sun A.H. 100 degrees 29 minutes; the latitude is by that observation 25 degrees 3 minutes. From last camp we came here in about the following courses: 11.12 a.m. east for five miles; 11.30 a.m. east-south-east for three-quarters of a mile; 12.15 p.m. ----; 1.15 p.m. east-south-east half south for two and three quarter miles to where we crossed a well-watered creek; 2.10 p.m. east for one and a half miles; 5.30 p.m. south-south-east for six miles; 9 p.m. south-east for eight miles: twenty-five miles.
Friday, 2 May 1862 - Camp 61.
Jackey and Jemmy spent as usual the greater part of the forenoon in mustering the horses. We left camp 60 at 10.20 this morning and came twelve and a half miles in a south-east direction. The four miles we followed the creek up from our last camp took us more easterly than southerly. After leaving the creek we crossed a low scrubby sandstone range and got to the head of a watercourse in which we found water on following it down to a short distance. The country we saw today was very scrubby with the exception of some thinly wooded patches near the creek we left. The scrub consisted of mulga with a few other trees. Amongst these I observed broad-leaved ironbark and broad-leaved box, bloodwood, currajong, and bottle-trees. The broad-leaved box-trees we had not seen previously on this expedition. The ironbark-trees are seldom or never found far to the southward of the main range. The soil consisted chiefly at several places of stiff clay which retains an impression a long time when softened by rain. We observed the dray-tracks Jemmy had seen yesterday about three and a quarter miles on this side of our last camp. Near to where Jemmy had found the water and the dray-track I made the meridian altitude of the sun A.H. 98degrees 43 minutes; the latitude is by that observation 25 degrees 7 minutes. We came here from last camp in about the following courses: 11.30 east-south-east for three and a quarter miles up the creek of 60 camp; 12.20, 12.55 east-south-east half a mile; 3.30 south-east seven and a half miles to the head of the watercourse; 3.50 south three-quarters of a mile down watercourse; 3.38 east quarter of a mile; total twelve and a half miles.
Saturday, 3 May 1862.
We left Camp 61 this morning at 8.27. This camp is situated on the western bank at the head of a watercourse which perhaps flows into the Warrego River. When we had followed this river down for about twenty-three miles in a southerly direction we encamped. In following the river down after crossing a short distance below camp along its eastern bank, and when we had ridden about twelve and a quarter miles, we crossed a creek from the eastward. Nearly all the way today we observed deep horse-tracks, and about four and a quarter miles above here we observed a tree marked FM (conjoined) with cross underneath. The channel of the river was of a sandstone formation at some places and had fine holes of water. Our path today came over six miles of unavailable barren scrubby ridges. The remainder of the way was chiefly over well-grassed land confined on the eastern side for the greater part by sandstone ridges thickly wooded with mulga. We came here in about the following courses from the last camp: 10.40 south-south-east for five and three-quarter miles; 12.20 south half east for five and a half miles; 1.15 south for one mile; 2.40 south-south-west for four and a half miles; 3.25 south for two and a quarter miles; 4.25 south-south-east for three miles; 4.50 south one and a quarter miles; total twenty-three miles.
Sunday, 4 May 1862.
As this was Sunday we rested ourselves and the horses. I made the latitude 25 degrees 36 minutes 51 seconds.
Monday, 5 May 1862.
We left Camp 62 this morning at 9.15. This camp is situated on the bank of the river. In the forenoon we proceeded due south. In the afternoon we had to travel considerably to the westward of south to keep near the river. When we had ridden about twenty and a half miles we camped on the western side of a shallow waterhole in an eastern channel of the river. Near the river the flats were good. On them the grass was excellent, with a good deal of cotton-bush and saltbush amongst it. The back country was sandy, having kangaroo-grass upon it and wooded with broad-leaved box, broad-leaved ironbark, bloodwood, and mulga. The river was well watered till we came within a few miles of the camp, where it divided into a number of shallow channels. About seven and a half miles south of last camp I made the meridian altitude of the sun A.H. 95 degrees 39 minutes, the latitude 25 degrees 41 minutes. We came here from last camp in the following courses: 11.35 south for seven and a half miles; 2.3 south-south-west for four and a half miles; 2.33 south-west for one and a half miles; 3.8 south-west half south for one and a half miles; 3.47 south for one and a quarter miles; 5.16 south and by west for three and a half miles; 5.30 west-south-west three-quarters of a mile. Distance twenty and a half miles.
Tuesday, 6 May 1862.
We started from Camp 63 this morning at 8.33. We left the river, and after we had journeyed about twenty-five miles slightly southward of east we found water and encamped. After leaving the river flats the country was poor. The soil was of a reddish colour and although sandy was very hard. It was wooded with broad-leaved box and mulga scrub. In the first part of the way in many places it was well covered with kangaroo grass, but in the last part of the journey it was too scrubby to be well grassed. When we had gone about eight and a half miles we crossed a low sandstone range; until we reached it we neither saw water nor the slightest sign of a watercourse. In this day's journey we saw more kangaroo and wallaby than on any previous occasion, but we were so eager to get water that we did not try to shoot them. We came here in about the following courses: 11.10 east-south-east eight and a quarter miles to the range; 2.10 east-south-east eight and a half miles; 4.33 east six and a half miles; 4.58 south-east three-quarters of a mile; 5.20 east one mile; total twenty-five miles.
Wednesday, 7 May 1862.
We left Camp 64 this morning at 9.30. The camp is situated on the eastern bank of a small creek which has a south-west course. When we had come in an east-south-east direction for about nine miles we saw a range of hills ahead of us, and about two miles further on we crossed a creek with extensive flood-marks and a south-west course. About three and a quarter miles further we crossed a small creek and encamped. Our path for the first part of the way was over poor land thickly wooded with scrubby trees; the latter part over land generally good with good grasses. The land near the creek was particularly good and thinly wooded with box. Having found four emu eggs today Mr Bourne and I made an excellent dinner of one of them boiled. We thought it had as delicate a flavour as a hen's egg; the rest of our party made emu-egg pancakes, and although they had no salt or sugar they relished them exceedingly. We came here today in the following direction: at 1 east-south-east for nine and a quarter miles; 1.40 south-east for one and three-quarter miles on creek; 2.50 south-east for three miles to small creek; 3 south for quarter mile to camp; distance fourteen and a quarter miles.
Thursday, 8 May 1862.
We left camp this morning at 8.50 and came over scrubby country for six miles. In the first part of the distance, which was particularly scrubby, we crossed a high sandstone range. Six miles further on we crossed a large creek and encamped. The land we crossed was very good, the soil was loose sand with a luxuriant growth of good green grass. The trees were of the following kinds: Broad-leaved box, broad-leaved ironbark, Moreton Bay ash, bloodwood, and cypress pine. We came here on the following courses from 65 Camp: 11 east-south-east for two and a half miles; 11.50 east-north-east for three-quarters of a mile; 11.55 east for one mile; 3 east-south-east for seven and three-quarter miles. Distance today twelve miles.
Friday, 9 May 1862.
We left Camp 66 this morning at 9.5. When we had come down the eastern bank of the river for twenty-one miles we encamped. Following down the river took us nearly two points to the westward of south. Along our path near the bank of the river the land was sandy. It was wooded with broad-leaved box, broad-leaved ironbark, Moreton Bay ash, bloodwood and cypress pine. At a place about six and three-quarter miles this side of the last camp I made the meridian altitude of the sun A.H. 92 degrees 33 minutes 30 seconds; the latitude 26 degrees 13 minutes 10 seconds. At a place about eight and three-quarter miles above here we observed trees marked 1861, J.A.C.H.U.C.H.B.A.K.C. From last camp we came here in about the following courses: 10.55 south-west and by south for two and three-quarter miles; 11.30 south and by east for four miles; 2.30 south-west and by south for five and a half miles (to marked trees) 3.20 south-west and west for two and a quarter miles; 4.23 south and by east for three and a quarter miles; 5.25 south-west and by south for two and three-quarter miles. Twenty-one miles.
Monday, 12 May 1862.
Camp 67 is situated on the left bank of the river. Last night we had severe frost which produced ice in our tin vessels. We left it at 8.55 in the morning and steered south-south-east. When we had gone eleven and a half miles we crossed a sandy creek and followed it down in a west-south-west direction for a short distance. Finding no water in the creek we left it and continued on our old course. Near sunset, when we had gone about nine miles without finding another watercourse, we went in a more easterly direction. We continued going on after dark until nearly 2 o'clock on Sunday morning. After waiting for Jackey and Jemmy, who had stayed behind yesterday, we started at 11.12 without them. We travelled all day without finding water; but after dark we found a small watercourse which we followed down for about four hours, still without finding water. Here we encamped. In the course of the day Jackey and Jemmy overtook us. Their excuse for being behind was their having turned back to look for a pistol Jackey had lost. Jemmy I was sorry to find was severely burnt from his clothes having caught fire while he was asleep on the previous night. I determined to return to water from here as the horses had been two days without any. After travelling almost incessantly for upwards of seventy-two hours we reached here this morning at 9. Although there was plenty of water in the creek here there was more lower down, at the place we crossed on our outward route when we were eleven and a half miles south-south-east from Camp 67. The horses looked wretched when they had been twenty-four hours without water, and as they had been seventy-two hours without water when they reached here they certainly looked most pitiable objects. Whilst searching for water the weather was most favourable, although sometimes freezingly cold when travelling at night; so much so that to keep ourselves from getting benumbed Mr Bourne and I often walked. Being able only to take a small quantity of water with us Jemmy, who was suffering very much from his back, injured by the burning, felt often very thirsty but, poor fellow, we could only spare him a small quantity. The country we saw on this journey was so bad that I did not wonder at its not being stocked, and only a few tracks of cattle are to be found on it. The land very level with poor sandy soil. Where it is not thickly wooded with thick mulga scrub, which chiefly prevails, it is grassed with triodia and wooded with rather broad-leaved ironbark, broad-leaved box, and apple-trees. The apple-trees we had not previously seen on this expedition. The obstacles against steering were numerous. In my outward route I went more to the southward than I intended. Coming back I came luckily more to the northern, and got water sooner than I otherwise would have done. We came from Camp 67 and returned here in about the following courses: May 10: 12.55 south-south-east for eleven and a half miles to creek; at 1 west-south-west for quarter of a mile down the creek. May 11: 1.50 a.m. south-south-east for twenty-five and a quarter miles. Started again at 12 a.m., 7.30 east for nineteen miles to creek; 10.5 south-south-east for five miles down the creek. Length of outward route sixty-one miles. Returning: started at 8.40 yesterday morning; 5 p.m. north-west and by west to outward route; 12.8 a.m. north-west for sixteen miles.
Tuesday, 13 May 1862.
Started at seven this morning north-north-west half north for five miles to this camp. Length of return route forty-three miles. I made the meridian altitude of the sun here A.H. 89 degrees 30 minutes; the latitude 26 degrees 38 minutes.
Wednesday, 14 May 1862.
We intended proceeding down the creek today, but when we had got the horses ready to start we found that Jemmy was suffering so much pain from the sore on his side and back that he could not proceed. When we were endeavouring to persuade him to try and go on he asked us to go ourselves and leave him behind. Yesterday evening I dressed his sores with pomatum and put a bandage round his body. As he supposed the bandage caused him additional pain we took it off and dusted his sores with flour.
Thursday, 15 May 1862.
Yesterday morning we left Camp 68 at 11.40; it is situated on the west bank of the creek. When we had followed the creek down for about twenty miles on its west bank where we encamped. Following the creek took us in a serpentine course and in generally a north-westerly direction. When we had travelled twelve and a quarter miles or thereby we crossed our track from Camp 67. In the first half of today's journey, to avoid losing the creek, we had to keep very near to it because of the sandstone ridges along its banks preventing us seeing the course of the creek had we kept back from it for the purpose of cutting off the angles. The latter half was without water, but as we did not know that we kept near the creek in the hope of getting water for our encampment. The country we saw, especially on the upper part of the creek, was poor and of little value. Near the creek we observed clumps of mimosa, the kind that is commonly called green-wattle. We followed the creek down in about the following courses: 12.50 north-west for five and three-quarter miles; 2.18 north-north-west for three and a quarter miles; 2.35 north for one and a quarter miles; 3.20 west and by north for two miles; 3.27 west for a quarter of a mile to track; 3.33 west-south-west for a quarter of a mile; 4 south-west for one and a quarter miles; 4.25 north-west for one mile; 4.55 south-west for one and a quarter miles; 5.18 west-south-west for one mile; 5.35 west-north-west for three-quarters of a mile; 6.18 north-north-west for one mile; 6.42 west-north-west for one mile to encampment. Distance today twenty miles.
Friday, 16 May 1862.
As Jemmy was not able to assist Jackey in getting the horses Fisherman, who has all along marked the trees, had to go in his stead. When the horses were saddled and packed the main party proceeded down the creek, and Fisherman and I stayed behind to mark the trees at our encampment on the west bank of the creek. Afterwards we proceeded down the creek, and in trying to cut off the angles we passed the junction of the creek with the Warrego River and got up the river three miles before we discovered our mistake. After watering our thirsty horses we followed down on the eastern bank of the river for sixteen and a half miles to where Mr Bourne had made the encampment. I was glad to find that, in following down the river, Mr Bourne had shot a large turkey. The river has fine reaches of water, but the banks are too thickly wooded with mulga scrub to be of much value for pastoral purposes. We observed blacks on the opposite banks of the river to us. One of them was up a hollow tree cutting out a honeycomb or a possum. Fisherman had a conversation with him, but as he said the blackfellow did not know where there were any stations I do not think he understood him. There were barking curs with them, which made us suppose we were probably not far from stations. Fisherman and I came here today in the following courses: 9.40 west-south-west for three-quarters of a mile; 10.30 north-north-west for three and a quarter miles; 10.40 west-north-west for half a mile; 11.45 south-south-east for three miles to the junction of the creek with the river; 12.22 south-south-west for one and three-quarter miles; 1.28 south-west for three miles; 2.15 east-south-east for two miles; 3.40 south-west by south for four miles; 4.40 south for three miles. Distance twenty-one and a quarter miles.
Saturday, 17 May 1862.
We left camp yesterday morning at 9. We followed the river down all day till it became dark, in the hope of reaching a station. We were disappointed in our expectations and did not see many tracks of cattle. Along our path on the east side of the river, about three-quarters of a mile below camp, we observed a tree marked A. After passing between a hill and the river, about six and a quarter miles below camp, we crossed extensive flats and a low sandhill. The country was thinly wooded in some places and scrubby at others. The land, although not very rich, had the best grasses, and cotton, and saltbush upon it; the sandhill was wooded with cypress pine and other trees. When we had come about eleven and a quarter miles Mr Bourne discovered that he had left his pistol at the last camp. Jackey returned with him to get it. Before they left I advised them to take rations as there was little probability of their overtaking us; but they went off without them as quickly as they could, with the intention of joining us again some time before morning; but they did not succeed in doing so, nor have they made their appearance yet. We came here in about the following courses: 9.20 south-south-west for three-quarters of a mile to A-tree; 10.8 east-south-east for two and a quarter miles; 11.20 south and by west for three and a quarter miles to opposite a hill; 12.50 south and by east for three and a quarter miles; 3.50 south and by west for seven and a quarter miles; 3.55 south-west and by south for one mile; 4.35 west for one and a half miles; 4.55 south-east for a quarter of a mile; 6.10 south-south-west for three and a half miles. Distance today twenty-three miles.
Sunday, 18 May 1862 -
Camp 71. River Warrego.
I would have gone on today if Mr Bourne and Jackey had been with us as we have only a few days' rations. Not knowing how far I may have to go down the river before we reach a station where we can obtain a fresh supply, and knowing from my last trial of going to the eastward how much the horses suffered from the want of water, I determined not to put them to such suffering again if avoidable. In the middle of the day Fisherman, Jemmy, and I heard a loud report of what we thought was a gun probably discharged by Mr Bourne or Jackey, and expected them to arrive immediately. I am very anxious about them, especially as it would be inconvenient to send Fisherman off to see what has become of them, Jemmy being so ill he cannot look after the horses. Meridian of the sun A.H. 86 degrees 23 seconds, latitude 27 degrees 5 minutes.
Monday, 19 May 1862 -
Camp 72. River.
Fortunately the horses were not all mustered until the afternoon, as shortly before they were so Mr Bourne and Jackey arrived. If we had found the horses as early as usual we would have been looking up the river for Mr Bourne and Jackey, where we should not have found them. They had lost our tracks and followed down the river. We were exceedingly glad to see them and to find that they had brought a large portion of an emu with them which they killed yesterday. Mr Bourne observed in the course he had pursued a tree marked EO on one side and on the other side EWC over C. I washed on the edge of the river near a deep waterhole in some clay and pebbles in search of gold but did not find any. This afternoon we left Camp 71 at 3.20. Came down on the eastern side of the river and encamped as it grew dark, within about six and a half miles of our last camp. I made the meridian altitude of the sun A.H. 85 degrees 51 minutes, the latitude is by that observation 27 degrees 8 minutes. The observation I yesterday made showed the camp three miles northward of the latitude from today's observation. We came here in about the following courses: 4.10 south-east for two miles; 4.30 east-south-east for one mile; 4.50 south-south-east one mile to Mr Bourne's camp; 5.27 south-south-west for one and a quarter miles; 6 west-south-west for one and a quarter miles. Distance six and a half miles.
Tuesday, 20 May 1862 - Camp 73.
We left Camp 72 this morning, 9.20, and made down the river after sunset. In that time we travelled about twenty-one miles. We hoped to have reached a station today and would have gone further if we had not been delayed. We got on to a cattle run, and when our packhorses saw the cattle moving they took fright and galloped off. Fisherman and Jackey went after five of them, the remainder were collected and came on here with them. The others Jackey and Fisherman collected and brought in a few hours after dark. This is a fine run, and the country we saw from our path consisted in a great measure of fine grassed plains. We were very glad to get to this cattle run as we had used all our flour excepting what would do us for two days; and if it had not been for the emu Jackey shot our food would have been done. We had half doomed one of our horses to the butcher's knife, although none of us liked the idea of eating a poor old saddle-horse, consequently we were all exceedingly glad to reach the cattle run. We came today in about the following courses: 10 south for two miles; 10.40 south-east and by south for two miles; 12 south-south-east half south for three and a half miles; at 1 south and by west for two and three-quarter miles; 2.30 south-west and by west for four and a quarter miles; 3.15 south-west for half a mile; 3.40 south-east and by east for one and a quarter miles; 4.5 south and by west for one mile; 5 south-west for two and a half miles; 5.30 west for one and a quarter miles. Distance twenty-one miles.
Wednesday, 21 May 1862 -
This morning we followed down the river for about two and three-quarter miles in a south and by east direction, and reached the station occupied by Mr Williams where we received a most hospitable reception and learnt the unfortunate fate of Burke and Wills. Here I took sights and made the meridian altitude of the sun A.H. 83 degrees 85 minutes. The latitude is by that observation 27 degrees 38 minutes.
Thursday, 22 May 1862 -
Camp 19. Warrego River.
Today we made preparations for proceeding to the Darling River. I sold to Mr Williams the following articles: Carbine 4 pounds; Enfield rifle 3 pounds; revolver (Colt) small size 4 pounds 10 shillings; cartridges for revolver 12 shillings; steelyards 5 shillings; pick and shovel 5 shillings; 2 1/2 pounds of powder 10 shillings; cartouche box 5 shillings; shoeing tools 15 shillings; four sets horseshoes 8 shillings; spokeshave etc. 4 shillings; 1 1/4 boxes gun caps 9 shillings; three powder flasks (one damaged) 3 shillings; cleaning rod for gun etc. 4 shillings; three boxes gun caps (broken) and pistol cleaning rod 6 shillings; six yards canvas (damaged) 6 shillings; nine saddle-girths (partially damaged) 14 shillings; 6 pounds nails and screws at 1 shilling and 6 pence; medicine 10 shillings; fryingpan 2 shillings; two packsaddles (broken) 2 pounds; crupper 4 shillings and 6 pence. Total 19 pounds 13 shillings and 6 pence. And bought the following supplies: 100 pounds of flour 2 pounds 10 shillings; 24 pounds of sugar 18 shillings; 3 pounds of tea 12 shillings; one bar of soap 4 shillings. Total 4 pounds 4 shillings. The money Mr Williams gave for the stores was a higher amount than would have been obtained at a township by public auction. Neither did he purchase them so much because he wanted them as to oblige me. He also supplied us with as much beef and butter as we required to take with us, and would not accept payment for any supplies that were raised by themselves.
Friday, 23 May 1862.
About ten miles below Mr Kennedy's Camp 19, camp on the Warrego River.
As the road was indistinct Messrs. Williams kindly accompanied us to the stage, about two and a half miles this side of the station, where they showed us the tree marked by Mr Kennedy K XIX. The horsemanship and bushmanship displayed by these young Australians were very remarkable. A large portion of my life has been spent in the bush, yet dray-tracks that I could only follow at a few places they evidently considered at all places a plain road.
Saturday, 24 May 1862.
About half a mile below the tree marked by Mr Kennedy K XXI.
This morning we left our last camp at 9.15. When we had travelled down on the east bank of the river about twenty-eight miles, at 3.50 in the afternoon, we reached here. On the bank there is a station occupied by Mr Con, and on the opposite bank a station occupied by Mr Gallagher. The country we passed over today is as fine, rich and well-grassed as any person could wish for pastoral purposes. A few weeks ago the hut-keeper, an inoffensive old man who thought the blacks were harmless, was killed and shockingly mangled by them, and the hut robbed, in the absence of the stockman. With the contents of a bottle of rum we had long preserved, in case it might be wanted for medicinal purposes, we drank the health and many returns of the birthday of Her Majesty Queen Victoria.
Sunday, 25 May 1862.
Warrego River, about half a mile below the tree marked by Mr Kennedy K XXI.
We rested ourselves and the horses. This morning I gave the manager of stock here twenty rounds of cartridges, a few bullets, and a few caps for a breach-loading rifle that I had sold him. The rifle is one I had borrowed from Mr Bourne for my last expedition, but as it was injured in the service I promised to replace it. Its original cost was 15 pounds 10 shillings, but I sold it for a lower price, namely, 10 pounds. We followed the road which came down the eastern bank of the river over well-grassed rich level country and sandy ridges for about twelve miles.
Monday, 26 May 1862.
Cunnamulla, Warrego River.
We followed the road down the river for about thirty-five miles from the cattle stations, near Mr Kennedy's 21st camp.
Tuesday, 27 May 1862.
Wooroorooka, Warrego River.
We continued following the road down the river till we reached Wooroorooka. This run is occupied by a herd of horses belonging to T. Danger, Esquire. Yesterday and today we travelled each day about seven and a half hours. The distance is called seventy miles. The country we saw between Cunnamulla and Wooroorooka was wet thinly-wooded plains intersected by ana-branches of the river and by sandhills. At Wooroorooka I met a gentleman called Mr Birch who at one time very ably assisted Mr Stutchburgh in making a geological survey of a great part of Australia. To him Mr Bourne and I are greatly indebted for giving us much intelligence of events that have taken place since we left Brisbane last August. I learn from him that he had travelled the distance from the boundary line of New South Wales to Wooroorooka, and found it was five and three-quarter miles.
Wednesday, 28 May 1862.
Bananka, Warrego River, New South Wales.
From Wooroorooka we followed the road down the river for about twelve miles and reached a station occupied by the sheep of the Bogan River Company. Our path was over slightly wooded plains, the soil rich and covered with the best grasses. The grass, from the dry season, was so parched that it looked in its present state almost worthless, but the fine condition of the sheep showed it to be still first-rate pasturage.
Thursday, 29 May 1862.
Eringa, Warrego River, New South Wales, Con's Old Station.
Our path today took us down the left bank of the river, a distance said to be twenty-eight miles, which we travelled in six and a half hours. The country we saw is similar to all the country on the river. From the point of the river where it is unconfined by ridges it flows in several channels.