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November 1861

Journal of Landsborough's Expedition from Carpentaria, in search of Burke & Wills
Melbourne, Wilson & Mackinnon & F F Bailliere, Publisher, 85 Collins-street east.
(Ferguson 11329).
1862.

Monday, 18 November 1861 - Camp 2.
Camp Number 2. Situated near the junction of Beames Brook.
From the Post-office Lagoon we went one and a half miles west, thence over fine downs, chiefly wooded with acacia, two and a half miles south-west, and reached a pond on the left bank of Beames Brook, near which we had a dinner of young wood from a cabbage-palm-tree which Fisherman felled near the steep bank of the running stream, at which place we marked a tree (broad arrow before L) and likewise marked in the same way a more conspicuous tree which stands a little further out from the brook; thence eight miles south-west, over fine rich plains with a good variety of grass upon them, and a few plants of saline herbs. It was then time to encamp, as we had been travelling for five hours; we therefore changed our course to north-west for three-quarters of a mile, and reached a branch of the Nicholson River consisting of at least four channels, one full of fine clear running water, on the right bank of which we formed our Number 3 Camp.

Tuesday, 19 November 1861 - Camp 3.
The channels are shaded by drooping tea-trees, swamp-oaks, etc. As it was unnamed on the charts I gave it the name of Gregory River. Some blacks came up and watched the camp while we were packing. We started up the river at 8.45 a.m.; we followed the right bank of the watercourse in a south-south-west direction. At 9.50 we reached a fine point for a station for stock, about two and a quarter miles by the river from camp, the first mile and a half of which was in a south-south-west, and the last three-quarters of a mile in a south by east direction. We could not cross the river easily, so we kept on the right bank. At 10.20 we reached a point on the riverbank half a mile south-west from the last. At 10.35 we made half a mile south. At 10.45, steering south-west by south half a mile we came to what seemed to be the junction of the creek. The course of the river was then from south-west to north-east, so we followed it up for three miles, where we unpacked the horses, as we wanted to water them. The approach to the river was boggy. We stopped here and had some dinner. On the bank marked a tree (broad arrow before L). In the afternoon we travelled from 4.4 to 6.13, in the following courses:
At 4.20 half a mile south-west by south where we passed a fine waterhole.
At 4.40, one mile south-west by south.
At 5.5 one mile south-west.
At 5.30 one mile south-west by south.
At 5.55 one mile south-west to where we passed a broad reach of water.
At 6.10, three-quarters of a mile south-east to a point above junction of a dry watercourse where we made our Number 4 camp. The edges of the plain which we saw today in following up the river are of the richest soil, and only sufficiently timbered to afford firewood for a pastoral population. The grasses are of the best description. This is the character of the whole of the country we have seen since we left our first camp. There is no appearance on the country we have crossed of its having had rain for a long time; but from the strong stream of water in the river I think there must have been plenty of rain on the country higher up. I saw today, on several low places, saltbush which the horses ate, of a kind I have often seen in the western country from Rockhampton, but never before so near to the coast. By following the river it has taken us nearly right on our course towards Mount Stuart.

Wednesday, 20 November 1861 - Camp 4.
Camp Number 4.
Situated on right bank of the Gregory River. Started at 8.13 a.m. and steered south for about three miles, until 9.25; then I had to change our course to south-south-east for about half a mile to where we tried to cross the river, but could not find a suitable place for doing so. Started again at 10.15 and reached at 11.15, by a south course, two and a quarter miles to where we crossed a dry creek near its junction with the river. We continued steering on the same course south for about one mile, when we reached the bank of the river, and a further continuation of the same course for one mile brought us to a place on the river where we watered the horses. The watering-place was boggy but we could find no better. Started again at 2.4 p.m., and at 3.30 made one and a half miles south-south and by east; at 4 made one and a half miles in a south-east direction, to where I went in search of a crossing-place, and in doing so followed the river in a south-east direction for two and a half miles without finding a place where the horses could approach even near enough to the river to get a drink without a risk of their falling into the deep water. We followed up the Gregory River thirteen miles by the courses I have mentioned. We found the branding-irons did not answer for branding trees, as it took a much longer time to do so than to mark them with a tomahawk, so we buried them at a tree marked Dig, at the camp we left this morning. Last night we had a potful of the young wood of the cabbage palm, which tasted like asparagus. All the country we have seen today is of a similar character to that described in yesterday's journal. This afternoon we reached country on which rain had fallen recently and it was in consequence covered with herbage so green that we did not think the horses on it would require water during the night, so their not having been able to approach it earlier in the day was not of any consequence. We encamped but the night was so short and the mosquitoes so troublesome that, what with watching and getting up at 3.45, we had hardly sufficient sleep. I found at this time that the duties of exploring gave very little time for fishing or shooting. At this period of our journey the sextant was too much out of order for making sufficiently accurate observations of the stars.

Thursday, 21 November 1861 - Camp 5.
Camp Number 5.
On right bank of the Gregory River. Started at 8.30 a.m., and at 8.55 had made along the same bank three-quarters of a mile in a south-south-east direction; at 9.25 we made a mile further in the same direction; at 10.13 also in the same direction (south-south-east) two miles; at 10.30 changed our course and made three-quarters of a mile south-east; at 10.45 by following up the river we made half a mile south-east by south to a point where I marked a tree with a broad arrow before LC+, where the river assumed a new character. It has a broad hard bed with only a boggy spot at the western bank. The crossing of the horses over this place was more difficult than I expected, and had to be accomplished by strewing the ground with grass. We started from the left bank of the river at 3.13 p.m., and at 3.40 made one mile and a quarter south and by east; at 4.18 two miles in the same direction; at 4.40 one mile south-east; at 4.54 half a mile further in the same direction; at 5.12 three-quarters of a mile south in a fruitless search for water. Returned to the same bank by an east-north-east line of one mile and a quarter in length, where we encamped. The country we have seen on this side, although fine fattening plains, is more thinly grassed and not nearly so rich as that on the plains we saw lower down the river. At the camp we found marjoram, which makes a pleasant drink. On this side of the river also we observed a white stunted gum with leaves like that of the apple tree. I may mention a few common trees which I have observed today--first, on the edges of the river fine large tea-trees, with foliage (melaleuca) like the drooping willow; beautiful Leichhardt-trees, pandanus, and cabbage-palm-trees: on the banks and scattered over the plain, stunted box, bauhinia, white cedar, and bloodwood; with the pandanus I got too intimately acquainted for, while with merely a shirt upon me, leading a restive horse across the river, I fell back and, rolling, got its thorns into all parts of my body.

Friday, 22 November 1861 - Camp 6.
Camp Number 6.
Situated on the left bank of the Gregory River. At 9.44 a.m. steered south and by east for two miles, and by doing so went across a bend of the river; at 9.58 made half a mile in a south by west direction; at 10.20 made a quarter of a mile in the same direction, to the left bank of a watercourse, which was evidently a new one, and which I called the Macadam, after the Secretary of the Royal Society. Stopped to fill water-bottles and water the horses as I was afraid of the creek being dry further up. Started again at 11.40 a.m. at a quicker pace, and at 12.10 p.m. made one mile and a half south; at 12.40 p.m. halted to adjust the pack of a packhorse after having made one mile and a quarter further in the same direction. Started again and at 1 p.m. made south and by west (by following up the Macadam Creek) half a mile; at 1.20 one mile south-west by south to where we stopped, and started again at 1.26; at 1.55 one mile south-west by south made a point near which there was water in the Macadam Creek, and encamped.

With respect to the Macadam Creek, it is badly watered and has a dry shallow aspect, and appears from the scarcity of flood-marks to have seldom a stream of water in it, and I am of opinion flows chiefly through flat country. This character of a river has in the settled parts of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland, the best sheep country on its banks; but here, where all the country is dry enough for sheep, this will not be a qualification. Following it will be an unpleasant exchange to the Gregory River with its beautiful stream of water, which I daresay comes from well-watered highlands. At present the plains are dry and parched.

The water at our encampment was very bad, in a great measure from its being warm, shallow, and frequented by ducks and other birds. This is the hottest day we have had. At first we thought we were going to have a miserable camp, from the badness of the water; but in the afternoon a fine cool breeze sprang up and at the water, or near it, we shot several ducks, a large waterfowl, and some rose cockatoos; we had also as many nice little figs as we liked to eat from a large shady clump of bushes near the camp.

Saturday, 23 November 1861 - Camp 7.
Camp Number 7, situated on Macadam Creek.
We started at 8.48 a.m. and at 9.23 had made two and a quarter miles in a south-west by south direction. At 9.40 we made one mile further in the same direction; from thence we went in a south line for one mile and a quarter, and reached, at 10.10, at the end of that distance, a very fine waterhole, 300 yards long and forty yards wide, very deep, with basaltic dykes at both ends. I thought they were like white limestone. Here we watered the horses. Started again at 10.55. At 11.55 made south along the bed of the creek three-quarters of a mile. At 11.40 made a mile south-west by south, where we stopped to adjust a pack, and started again at 11.45. At 11.58 we reached in half a mile south-west by south a waterhole in the Macadam Creek, near which there are a great many rocks like white limestone. At this water we made another stop, and started at 12.20 p.m. At 1.3 made one mile and three-quarters south-south-west, where we sighted the first hills we have seen since leaving the Depot. We went on the plain a quarter of a mile south-west by south to get observations of the hills. They appeared to be twenty or thirty miles distant. Started again at 1.37, with Fisherman, following the rest of the party, who had gone on; and at 1.58 made three-quarters of a mile south-west by west. At 2.6 a quarter of a mile south to a dry creek, which we crossed. 2.40 we reached Macadam Creek in one mile and a half in a south by east direction, where we overtook our companions. At 3 we went in search of water up Macadam Creek three-quarters of a mile south. We stopped to have a drink, and although the water from the leather bottles was full of impurities we found it agreeable to our parched palates. We started again at 3.20, and made south-west one mile to Gregory's River, where we formed our seventh camp. The river is here a quarter of a mile wide, running strong in two channels. It is uncrossable for horses, and the intervening parts are crowded with fine large weeping tea-trees, large Leichhardt-trees, tall cabbage-palm, pandanus, and other trees. It is the finest and greenest-looking inland river I have seen in Australia, and the country it runs through consists of rich-soiled plains, just sufficiently wooded for pastoral purposes. Since we left the Depot we have not seen any country on which sheep would not do well, excepting during the wettest and driest seasons. In country such as this it is a singular fact that sheep do better, on the whole, in a wet season than on ridgy country. With one exception, where the soil was clayey, the country we have seen on this river is of the very richest description. At present it is parched up, with the exception of a few patches of young grass near the river. In many places the old grass is three feet high. Notwithstanding the parched state of the grass, the horses have done well upon it, indeed they could not look better if they had been corn-fed.

Sunday, 24 November 1861 - Camp 8.
Camp Number 8.
We rested ourselves and the horses. Mr Alison made a traverse table of our course and found that we had made 55 miles south and 25 miles west from Post Office Camp, near the junction of the Barkly with the Albert River, and the latitude 18 degrees 45 minutes. The sun is too vertical for taking it with my sextant and artificial horizon. We were rather late in making observations of the sun, and we only got one sight of it, which was made by myself. I brought it to a point within 180 yards of me on the level bank of the river, which altitude made our latitude 18 degrees 57 minutes. Thermometer showed 90 degrees at 7 a.m. and 103 degrees at noon. We got a fine potful of cabbage-tree sprouts, which eat like asparagus.

Monday, 25 November 1861 - Camp 8.
Camp Number 8. Situated on the Gregory River.
From this camp we started at 8 a.m., but had almost immediately to halt for ten minutes to adjust a pack on a riding-saddle. The other packsaddles were constructed on Gregory's principle, and required less adjusting. At 8.45 made one mile and a quarter south by west along the bank of the river. At 9 made one mile and a half south-west by south. At 9.16 made half a mile further along the river in the same direction to outlet of creek, which is probably what I have been calling Macadam Creek (or River). At 9.23 made a quarter of a mile still further along the bank of the river in the same direction, at which place hills were in sight a short distance from our course. Fisherman and I started for the hills, bearing 231 1/2 degrees, and in two miles we reached the hill, and from the top of it we saw ranges from 67 to 328 degrees; but none of them were remarkable. The hill we ascended was rocky and barren. Having taken observations of these hills, Fisherman and I started to rejoin our companions. The country was so parched up that Fisherman said, "Suppose you leave him river, you won't find other fellow water." At 11.49 we made one mile and a quarter south; at 12.10 we steered south-south-west for about three-quarters of a mile, and reached the river, where, at a blacks' camp, we overtook our companions. There were three gins and six children, who were trembling with fear in and at the edge of the water. In a short time they recovered courage, and one of the gins, to whom I gave a red woollen neck comforter, wanted to get up behind one of my companions, and although her advances were rejected she followed us until Jemmy, the trooper, made signs to her to return to camp. We started again at 12.30, and at 12.42 made half a mile south-west by west. At 12.56, by following up the river, we made half a mile in a south-west direction. At 1.17 p.m. made three-quarters of a mile south by west along the bank of the river. At 1.27 quarter of a mile south-west, where on the bank of the river we had dinner, and had for salad cabbage-tree sprouts. The holes in the river are here deep and long. Hills confine the river on both sides, just above where we had dinner. The one on the right bank of the river I have named Heales Ranges, and the one on the left Mount Macadam. Started again at 4.53 p.m. At 5.20 followed up the river, one mile in a westerly direction, over fine ridges of rich soil. At 5.27 quarter of a mile south-west by west. At 6.25 made two and a half miles west-south-west to left bank of the river, where we formed our ninth camp--the worst camp the horses have had as the grass was completely burned up.

Tuesday, 26 November 1861 - Camp 9.
Camp Number 9, situated on the Gregory River.
From this camp there are three hills on this side--the left--of the river, visible from the camp; ranges bearing from north by east to north by west I call the Hull Ranges; a hill west half south I call Mount Moore. Fisherman and I set off when Campbell, Allison, and the horses were all but ready to start, to go along the ranges to have a view of the country. We went along the ranges which confine the river on the left bank for forty-eight minutes, when we reached a point about two miles west by south from camp. At 9.20 we started to overtake our companions. At 10.12 made two miles and a quarter west by north, partly over ridges of good soil, and partly over barren ridges, all of which were as dry as a chip, to the track of our main party on the way up the river. At 10.40 made one mile southerly, and reached in that direction and distance the bank of the river, where it washes the base of a steep hill on the opposite side. At 11 we made three-quarters of a mile along the bank of the river in a south-west and by west direction. At 11.12 made half a mile west-south-west to a point on the bank where a hill on the left bank is about quarter of a mile distant to the north-west. At 11.25 made half a mile west-south-west to old channel of river. At 11.37 made half a mile west along the river to a point where an isolated hill bore west-south-west and by south. At 11.43 made quarter of a mile west and watered our horses at the river. Started again at 12 noon. At 12.20 steered one mile west, overtook our companions, and halted to water the horses of the main party. Started at 1 p.m., and at 1.50 made two miles south-west by following up the river. At 2.24 made a mile and a quarter south-west by west through a pass confined by hills on the right and the river on the left. As soon as we got out of it we observed similar ones on the opposite side of the river. At 2.45 made three-quarters of a mile south-west by south to a point where we made our Number 10 camp. Today we went up the river twelve miles and a half. During that space it is confined more or less by ranges, which the river on either one side or the other washes the base of when it is flooded. The troopers agree with me in thinking that the river has the appearance of having a constant stream of water. A small log of wood on the edge of the water I observed was covered over with a stony substance formed by sediment from the water. At one place in the river where we bathed the current was so strong that it took our feet from under us in wading across. It is so deep that it is not fordable except at the bars between the waterholes, where it runs rapid. Its bed is full of large trees, among which I observed gum, Leichhardt, tea, and cabbage-palm-trees. Along the edge of the water it has a fringe of pandanus. Among the trees in the second bed by the river there is coarse grass and other herbs. If we had seen the country under more favourable circumstances, a short time after rain had fallen instead of now, when the grass is dry and withered, I should have called it most beautiful country; for, with the exception of a few barren ranges the soil is very rich and clothed with the best of grasses. The trees upon it are chiefly bauhinia, and stunted box and gumtrees, without ironbark.

Wednesday, 27 November 1861 - Camp 10.
Camp Number 10, situated on the banks of the Gregory River.
Ginger, the old black horse, was missing until eleven o'clock, when the troopers reported that they had found him in the river drowned, and floating down with the stream. I had the horses brought down on the previous evening to the only watering-place which was safe, but as they were watered a few hours before they did not all of them drink so soon again. From camp we crossed a bad gully and from it made a fair start at 11.52, having made at that place half a mile south-west by south. The river is at this place closely confined on both sides by stony ranges; a few drops of rain fell on us in that pass. At 12.40 p.m. made two miles west to a small dry watercourse from the north, which is full of pandanus at its mouth. The ranges on the left bank had on them dykes like artificial ones, which run at different places across the hills. At 1 p.m. we made three-quarters of a mile in the same direction south to another dry small creek from the north. At 1.14 we made half a mile west by south to rapids with a fall of at least three feet, where the river was still closely confined on both sides. At 1.45 made a mile south-west to a small basaltic hill, opposite what appeared the junction of a larger river from the west-south-west. As the crossing-place was bad in this river the troopers and I crossed to look at the large watercourse; it was running and so full of pandanus that we could not see it well. It might be only another channel of the Gregory River. It has the broadest bed but has not so much running water in it. The basaltic hill rose too close to the river to let us pass so we had to go round it, and as soon as we had done so we reached the junction of a creek from the north. The country about here consists of stony barren hills and ridges, with the exception of a few spots which have rich soil and excellent grass. There is slate in abundance, and the country is like that of some goldfields I have seen. At 3.40 made half a mile north-west up the creek, which has a slaty bed, where we crossed. A little higher it has reeds and water in it. I have called it the Stawell Creek. At 3.48 quarter of a mile south-west to the river; we observed in crossing this point patches of triodia, or more commonly called spinifex. The country near this part of the river is wooded with stunted bloodwood. At 4.30 made one mile south-west up the river. At 4.43 half a mile south-south-west to a point between river and small basaltic hill with two little cones on the top of it, like the cairns Mr Stuart draws of those he made on Central Mount Stuart. (Direction omitted, probably about south.) At 4.10 one mile and a quarter to where we made our Number 11 camp, at which place I observed some first-rate grasses, and for the first time on the Gregory River a few tufts of kangaroo-grass. The country we have seen today is fine fattening healthy sheep country; but it will not carry much stock as the grass is thin. The horse drowned had been an unfortunate brute from the time of our leaving Brisbane. On board ship he was nearly kicked to death by other horses, having been trampled down during the wreck.

Thursday, 28 November 1861 - Camp 11.
Camp Number 11, situated on the Gregory River.
Mr Allison and I made from time to time observations of the sun and stars; but as the sextant, which had been injured at the wreck of a brig, was out of order, we had no confidence in those observations, and have not preserved them. From Camp Mount Kay, a hill confining the river closely on the left bank, about one mile and a half distant (looks about three miles) bore 119 degrees; another hill about two miles distant bore 28 degrees; and another, two miles, bore 312 degrees; also a hill forming the south end of the gorge of the river, about one mile distant up the river 249 degrees. There is marjoram in abundance at the camp; but that is hardly worthy of remark as it is very common all up the river from the commencement of the high grounds. We were detained this morning as I had a shoe to put on one of the horses and other things to do. At 9.20 a.m. Messrs. Campbell, Allison, and Jemmy started up the river, and Fisherman and I started to look for a river from the southward. At 10.5, after having crossed the river, we made one mile and three-quarters south-south-west over rising ground, of the richest soil with hardly a tree upon it, to the foot of the ranges, at which place Mount Kay bore 56 degrees; the hill, probably, with the cairn on the top, 53 degrees; the ranges bearing 68 to 71 degrees, which I think are on the right bank of a watercourse we found soon afterwards, which I named the O'Shanassy River, just above its junction with the Gregory River. A table hill, about a mile distant 92 degrees. At 10.50 we made half a mile south-south-west to the top of a range which has a basaltic stony character. From it we observed that we were 327 degrees from a distant long-topped table hill. Having got into broken country I depended too much on Fisherman to take me out of it into the next valley, but he took me on to the river at a point a considerable distance up its course. At 1 p.m. we returned to the point, which is one mile and three-quarters south-south-west from the camp we left in the morning. At 1.30 we made east-south-east, past the little table hill to a beautiful valley of the richest soil, but now without water, and all the grass parched up, at which point Mount Kay bore north-north-west, about one mile distant. We then searched for the river we expected to find coming from the southward, and found it by following down the river north-east for one mile and a half below Mount Kay, where we marked a tree--broad arrow before L. We then followed the river up for half a mile and observed that it was running. It does not join at the place which we the previous day thought was the junction of a river. Just above the junction there is a scrub of large fig-trees, on which there were a great number of flying foxes. There is a hill on the right bank of the river, just above its junction with the Gregory, which I named Smith's Range. In returning I observed at a point one mile and three-quarters south-south-west from the camp remarkable hills on both sides of the Gregory River, about half a mile above the junction with the O'Shanassy, which I have named the Prior Ranges. At 4.48 we returned to a point opposite Mount Kay. At 5.26 made two miles up the river to where there are remarkable bluff hills on both sides of the river (the lower hills of the gorge). At 5.50 we observed that we had passed the camp and, as the river is difficult to cross even at its best fords, we went to the camp ford, which the horses knew, as we had crossed there in the morning. Having made camp at 6.35, at dark we made one mile and three-quarters west, slightly southerly to the hill at the gorge, on the track of the main party. Further than that Fisherman would not follow this track in the dark, as it went over a basaltic rocky range. This was a bad camp for us, the grass so parched up that the horses could not get any worth eating, and we had nothing to eat ourselves. I was stung by a reptile, probably a scorpion. The pain it gave was sufficient to make me very uncomfortable during the night.

Friday, 29 November 1861.
At 5.40 a.m. Fisherman and I started on the track of the main party. At 6.55 we made two and a half miles south-south-west by following the river up a gorge to opposite junction of a watercourse from the south, which I have named the Verdon Creek. At 7.18 made three-quarters of a mile south-west by south up gorge of the river. At 7.35 made half a mile south-west and by west to junction of a little creek from the north. At 8 made three-quarters of a mile west to a basaltic hill on left bank. At 8.25 three-quarters of a mile in the same direction, to a point opposite a large creek from the south, which I have named Balfour Creek. (Respecting it see Campbell's report.) At the lower end of a gap in the basaltic wall, on the left side, there is a round-topped hill, just above the junction of the creek. At 8.35 we made half a mile west-north-west to the junction of a small creek from the north. At 9.4 made a mile west and by north. At 9.13 a quarter of a mile to junction of a watercourse from the north, which I have named Haines Creek. At 9.24 a quarter of a mile north-west up this creek to Number 12 Camp. During the remainder of the day we all remained in encampment except Mr Campbell and Jemmy who went and examined Balfour Creek, having been asked by me to do so. Mr Campbell gave me afterwards the following report of his survey;

I proceeded, accompanied by Jemmy to the Gregory River, and though I endeavoured at several points to effect a crossing, we had to follow the stream about four miles before an eligible place could be found. Here the bottom is hard and stony, with about three feet of water running at a rapid rate. Opposite this point I marked a gumtree with + before broad arrow before L. I then proceeded up the opposite bank, and crossed two dry watercourses, and at about two and a half miles came upon the branch (I presume you to have meant) and found it going in a westerly direction. There was but little water in it so far as I went; and, as it was not running, I do not think water could be traced up any distance. I tried to cross the Gregory at the junction of this creek, but the banks are so boggy I had to return by the way I went.

Saturday, 30 November 1861 - Camp 12.
Camp Number 12, situated on Haines Creek.
At 8.35 a.m. left the camp, and at 8.50 made half a mile south-east and reached the river. At 8.57 made a quarter of a mile west. At 9.30 made one mile and a quarter west-south-west along the river. At 9.37 made a quarter of a mile south-west. At 9.55 made three-quarters of a mile south to where there is a crossing-place at rapids, with at least six feet of a fall. Made a delay of twenty minutes from having to go through pandanus and tea-tree scrub, and then over rocks, etc. Made a fair start at 10.20. At 10.35 made half a mile south-west. At 10.45 made half a mile south. At 11.10 made one mile and a half west-south-west. (About here kangaroos are numerous.) At 11.23 made half a mile south-west by west. At 11.40 made three-quarters of a mile west to a single column and wall, which I have called Campbell's Tower. Mr Campbell and I got into the tower, which we found a delightful shelter from the heat of the sun, while the troopers were getting cabbage-tree sprouts. Started again at 12.54 p.m. At 3.45 made what I supposed to be a branch of the river, as it was hardly running. Having stopped the horses, Jemmy and I went in search of the running water, and also to look for grass for the horses, as we did not remember having seen any on the course we had come for some distance back, except very coarse grass in the bed of the river, and old grass on the bank, which was too dry to be of service. At a quarter of a mile further we found the junction, on the right side of the river, of a well-watered creek which I have named after Sir Francis Murphy. We could not, from its bogginess, cross. We therefore returned, and recrossed at the old place. There we went down the river and crossed between the creek I mentioned. We then followed the same down on the right side about two miles without finding the junction of the running stream; and as it was late we returned to where we had left the main party, and near there formed our thirteenth camp on the left bank of the river.

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