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1863

Original minute books of the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria are held at:
State Library of Victoria, SLV MS13071; Boxes 2075/1, 2075/2, 207/3, 2088B/1.
Mostly bound volumes, manuscript, handwritten in ink.
Some missing, some incomplete, and many generally not in chronological order.

Victorian Government:
O'Shanassy's (third) Ministry to 27 June 1863.
Then McCulloch Ministry to 1868.

Friday, 2 January 1863.
Meeting.

Tuesday, 6 January 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2079/3, RSV EC miscellaneous outward correspondence, February-October 1860 and July 1861-November 1872. 126p.

•Copy of letter to Moore dated 6 January 1863. 2p.

Wednesday, 7 January 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to Commissioner of Railways [W H F Mitchell?] dated 7 January 1863.
• Letter to Chief Secretary [O'Shanassy] dated 7 January 1863.
• Letter to Thomas Pratt dated 7 January 1863.
• Letter to Geelong Town Clerk dated 7 January 1863.
• Letter to Sloan dated 7 January 1863.

Thursday, 8 January 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to Moore dated 8 January? 1863.

Monday, 12 January 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee, held at 4.30 pm at the Government Laboratory.
Present: Smith (chair), Wilkie, Watson and Macadam.

The Exploration Committee of the Royal Society held a meeting last night, to arrange farther respecting the funeral of Burke and Wills. The chair was taken by Mr James Smith, and there were present Drs Macadam and Wilkie and Mr J Watson.

Letters were read from the railway department, promising free carriage for the Castlemaine volunteers horse and foot, to attend the funeral; and from the military secretary, stating that the major-general would be happy to place the military under his command at the disposal of the committee, to line the streets through which the procession would pass. They were duly received; and then the Funeral Sub-committee brought up a series of suggestions respecting the management of the procession, and the persons who should be pall-bearers. They were adopted, but as the consent of the gentlemen indicated has not yet been obtained, we refrain, at the request of the committee, from mentioning them till after the meeting of Wednesday next.

A plan fixing the places at which the different bodies should assemble was also drawn up and ordered to be printed and circulated. It was agreed, moreover, that the Legislative bodies should meet in the Parliamentary reserve, while the chief mourners - Howitt's party and His Excellency the Governor - would be admitted within the Royal Society's reserve.

In the course of conversation, it was remarked that the position occupied by the Melbourne City Corporation would create some jealousy; but it was stated, in reply, that their post of honour, viz., behind the Legislative bodies was fixed by Act of Parliament. The committee was also occupied for some time in arranging how invitations should issue, and other small matters, after which they adjourned till Wednesday next.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 250. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 12 January 1863.

Friday, 16 January 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee, held at 4.30 pm, to make further arrangements for the funeral.
Present: Smith (chair), Elliott. Macadam.

The lying in state was to continue on Sunday from 1.00 pm to 6.00 pm and then on Monday and Tuesday.

Telegrams were read from Mr Aitkin, who was in charge of the camels, and Mr Howitt was requested to order him to come to town at once.

The Hon Secretary stated that Mr O'Shanassy, Captain Norman, Sir F Murphy, the Mayor, Mr Howitt and Mr King had accepted the invitation to become pall-bearers; but Major-General Sir Thomas Pratt declined, on account of ill-health, Dr Mueller was thereupon elected to fill his place, as he had been originally requested by Wills's father to follow the latter's remains at his burial.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 253. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 16 January 1863.

***
Argus, Saturday 17 January 1863: 8.
Lying In State of the Remains of Burke and Wills.
The 'Lying In State' will continue this day, Saturday, until 10 o'clock p.m., as also on Monday and Tuesday, the 19th and 20th Inst., from 10 a.m. until 10 p.m., when the Hall will be closed to arrange for the funeral on the following day. To accommodate such persons as cannot view the remains on week-days, the Hall will be open on Sunday from 1 o'clock p.m. to 6 o'clock p.m.
John Macadam, M.D., Hon. Secretary.

Tuesday, 20 January 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to Speaker of the Legislative Assembly dated 20 Jan 1863.

Wednesday, 21 January 1863: Funeral of Burke and Wills.
Argus (Saturday, 17 January 1863: 5)
The following is the address which is to be presented by the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society to Mr Alfred W Howitt, the successful commander of the Victorian Contingent Exploring Expedition, at a public meeting to be held on the evening of the day of the funeral of Burke and Wills:

To Alfred W Howitt, Esq.,
Leader of the Contingent Party of the Victorian Exploring Expedition.

Sir - The Exploration Committee cannot suffer you to terminate the arduous and responsible duties in which you have engaged for so long a period, without testifying in a permanent form their unqualified admiration of the exemplary manner in which you have executed the delicate and difficult trust reposed in you.

During a period of eighteen months you have been engaged in the fulfillment of various missions connected with the exploration of the continent, and have displayed qualities which, while they have commanded the respect and insured the safety of the parties under your control, have proved you to be eminently fitted for the post to which you were elected, and to possess the courage, patience, foresight, zeal, and energy, so essential to the successful conduct of an expedition like that confided to your care.

Your labours have benefited alike the cause of humanity and that of geographical science; and it is a source of sincere satisfaction to the Committee to be able to congratulate you on the honour you have achieved, and to tender you their cordial thanks for the valuable services you have rendered.

***
Argus (Wednesday 21 January 1863: 5)
The Burke and Wills Funeral

The public funeral of Burke and Wills is at present the engrossing object of public attention. The large attendance at the lying-in-state continued until the last moment. Both Houses of Legislature have adjourned until over the funeral, and a large influx of visitors from the country districts is taking place. How far the day will be observed as a public holiday is uncertain. The mayor has refrained from issuing any invitation to the citizens to suspend business and the matter therefore lies entirely in the hands of the merchants and tradespeople themselves. Whether it was advisable to leave the question thus unsettled is more than doubtful. In the present state of the affair, no one likes to take the initiative. It may happen that the churlish refusal of a few persons will prevent a general closing. The Government have behaved much more spiritedly in this matter than our municipal authorities have done. A supplement to the Government Gazette, issued yesterday morning, notifies that all public offices will be closed from noon until the termination of the funeral solemnities, and invites all Government officers to attend the same. Good taste ought certainly to insure the closing of all places of business on the route of the procession.

Although the lying-in-state was continued for so long a period, and although it was so numerously attended from the first, yet the throng at the Royal Society's Hall yesterday was greater than it had been at any time before. Throughout the day, the building was well filled, but in the evening the visitors came in such numbers that the hall could not accommodate them. The entrance was for a time besieged, and hundreds who had deferred their visit until the last moment, went away disappointed. No less than 10,400 persons were admitted. Altogether, during the fifteen days it has been open, the hall has been visited by 102,000 people. The orderly behaviour of this vast gathering is worthy of special mention. Excepting the detection of a pick-pocket, nothing occurred to call for the interference of the attendants. The hall is now closed to the public. His Excellency and Lady Barkly will, however, view the pageant privately, at an early hour this morning.

No alteration has been made in the arrangements for the procession. It will leave the hall of the Royal Society punctually at one o'clock, and will be joined at the head of Bourke-street by the members of the Legislature, who will have previously assembled and formed in the Parliamentary Reserve. This arrangement was formally communicated to the Legislative Assembly yesterday evening by the Speaker, but the President of the Council did not receive an intimation of it in time to permit of his informing the hon. members of the Upper House of the circumstance. It was made known to them, however, immediately after the rising of the House. Members, it is understood, will be allowed to follow in their carriages, if they think proper. Mr F Gingell, the marshal, has been busily engaged completing his preparations. Representatives of each of the various bodies forming the procession are requested to meet him at the house of Mr Daley, the undertaker, at eleven o'clock a.m., to receive their instructions. Everything, up to the present, has proceeded smoothly.

The Castlemaine Volunteers, with their band, arrived in town by special train yesterday afternoon; the Riflemen, fifty strong, under Captains Couchman and Ryland; the Dragoons, forty strong, under Captain Anderson - the whole being commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bull. The men mustered on the platform, and afterwards marched through the town in fine style. They will parade this morning, at eight o'clock, at Bignell's Hotel, where their instructions will be issued to them.

The list of pall-bearers is now complete, the following gentlemen having accepted the invitation of the committee:

For Burke: Sir William Stawell, John King, Ambrose Kyte, Chief Secretary John O'Shanassy, Richard Davies Ireland, Captain Frederick Standish and Sir Frederick Murphy.
For Wills: Thomas Wills, Dr Ferdinand Mueller, the Mayor of Melbourne, Alfred Howitt, Captain William Henry Norman, Former Chief Secretary Richard Heales and George Verdon.

Good views of the procession will he obtainable from several points. From the Parliamentary-reserve, and from the opposite western hill, it can be advantageously seen as it moves down Bourke-street, and the rise on the Sydney-road will enable a spectator stationed there to view its entire length as it winds into the cemetery. The procession will enter the cemetery at the main western gate, and all other entrances will be closed. The grave is situated near the southern confines of the ground, immediately opposite the rear of the University. The spot is close to the fence, and but few shrubs intervene, so that it will not be impossible to view the funeral ceremony outside the boundaries. The moment the procession starts, information of the fact will be communicated by telegraph to Ballarat, Geelong, Sandhurst, Castlemaine, and Beechworth.

***
Argus (Thursday, 22 January 1863: 5)
The Funeral of Burke and Wills.
The mortal remains of Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills, the Victorian explorers, were conveyed to their last resting place yesterday. With all honour the people of Victoria have interred their first heroes. The procession has moved, the funeral eulogy has been pronounced, in the presence of 40,000 people the dead have been committed to consecrated ground. They whom we have buried went forth to do a people's work. They perished, but not until their work was accomplished, not until their wreaths were won. Mistakes there may have been, even on their side, perhaps faults; but who could look upon those poor remains of mortality and think of aught but their virtues? When the sculptured marble, soon to be reared, has passed away, the story of the heroism of Burke and Wills will yet live. The thousands who crowded the streets came not only to witness a spectacle, they tendered willing homage to those who had died in the service of their country. They were instinct with those emotions which form a people into a nation. One chapter in the history of the expedition - the saddest - will not disgrace it, for though in the closing pageant, pomp and circumstance might be wanting, there was something in the sight of a people's sympathy which atoned for all mere outward shortcomings.

The day opened beautifully, and although in the afternoon the heat was intense, the weather throughout was propitious. From an early hour there was an unusual gathering in the streets of the city. The trains arriving at the various stations were crowded with passengers, and there was a continuous roll of cars from the suburbs. Many of the shops were closed from the first, and only a few did more than partially open. As the day progressed, the city became more thronged, and a general closing of places of business took place. This expression of feeling was of the greater value, inasmuch as it was spontaneous, no invitation having been issued by the Mayor. The first impulse of visitors arriving in town appeared to be to proceed to the hall of the Royal Society, though here there was not much to be seen until a later hour. Up to eleven o'clock, the lying-in-state arrangements were not interfered with. At that hour, the hall was visited by His Excellency Sir Henry Barkly, accompanied by Lady Barkly and Lady Bowen, and attended by Captain Bancroft, A.D.C. The vice-regal party remained in the hall for upwards of twenty minutes. Immediately after their departure, the iron shells containing the re- mains of the explorers were deposited in the outer mahogany coffins. This was done without any formal ceremony or without any further inspection of the remains. The chairman and hon. secretary of the Exploration Committee were present at the time, and also King and Burke's nurse, Mrs. Dogherty. The other spectators in the hall also stood round the catafalque, uncovered and in silence. In Wills's coffin was placed the wreath his fellow labourers at the Magnetic Observatory had hung upon the shell, and upon both his and Burke's, laurel wreaths sent by Dr. Mueller were deposited. Meanwhile the formation of the procession was in active progress; the various parties assembling rapidly at the appointed rendezvous. Detachments of volunteers marched through the streets, met at the Model Schools, were formed there, and thence marched in a body to the cemetery, where the regulars had already taken up their position. Each minute added to the concourse of spectators, and when, at a quarter to one o'clock, the coffins were conveyed from the hall and placed upon the funeral car, the assemblage had become enormous. Burke's coffin was borne out first. As it and that of Wills were caught sight of, the spectators reverentially uncovered, and simultaneously a battery of the Royal Artillery, stationed near Carlton-gardens, commenced firing minute guns. Never was there seen so great a concourse in Melbourne as had now assembled. The hall was literally be- sieged. The crowd extended westwards to the crest of Russell-street, while to the east the space in front of the Carlton-gardens and the Victoria-parade past Nicholson-street were equally blockaded. The mass then stretched down Nicholson-street, and Bourke street showed a continuation of it. The crowd was not of pedestrians alone, for with it were mingled carriages and cars, and vehicles of all classes. Every piece of vantage ground was taken possession of. There was not a window affording the prospect of a view but had its gazers. The roofs of the houses in the neighbourhood were eagerly made use of, even the tower of St. Peters Church had its occupants, and high above all, a numerous party of ladies as well as gentlemen, had taken their position on the top of the Houses of Parliament.

The procession moved from the hall at a quarter past one o'clock. The solemn, yet martial strains of the Dead March floating over the crowd, communicated the fact to them and then wending its way through the vast living masses, the cortège was seen slowly sweeping along Nicholson-street, past the Houses of Parliament, into the city. First came, in gallant style, the Castlemaine Volunteers - dragoons and rifles. Burke was formerly an officer of the Austrian service; his character was that of a soldier - brave, impulsive, and honourable. In the procession, therefore, troops led the way, and gave the pageant a military colouring. The police force, in which Burke was serving when he was selected for the arduous mission in which he fell, was then represented. The funeral car was next seen; and following it came the Governor of the colony and the long list of officers of state and of corporate bodies, showing the public nature of the services rendered by the explorers; while, reverting back to the military idea, the rear, at the close of the journey, was brought up by rifles and artillery corps. The funeral car was the object upon which all eyes were turned. It was constructed by Mr. Daley, upon the model of the one used in the funeral procession of the Duke of Wellington. Of course, it is only in external appearances, and then but partially, that it resembles that of the great Duke. In point of material and ornamentation, it is but a poor reflex of that magnificent work of art. The wheels, four in number, are bronzed, and in the space between them the panelling of the car descends in graceful curves and pillars nearly to the ground. This lower part of the body is appropriately ornamented. The upper portion is divided into four panels. On that on the right was in- scribed in gilt letters Burke's initials, "R. O'H. B.," and on that on the left the initials of Wills, "W. J. W." The front panel bears the royal arms, and the back the inscription, "Carpentaria." On the top of this framework, about eight feet from the ground, rested the two coffins, surmounted by a canopy bearing plumes of feathers, and supported by four silver-gilt columns springing from the body. Upon each column was hung wreaths of oak leaves, furnished by Dr. Mueller. Much of the ornamentation was lost to the public, owing to the coffins being covered with a heavy black pall bearing the initials of the dead, and fringed with silver lace. The massive and handsome coffins were, however, plainly visible.

The car is fifteen feet long, twenty-one feet high, and eighteen in breadth. It was drawn by six handsome black horses suitably caparisoned. As Bourke-street was entered, the few members of the Legislature who took part in the ceremony, joined it without creating any confusion. There were but twenty-eight members present altogether, and the majority of these rode. Bourke-street, at first sight, seemed a mass of heads. It was thronged from the Houses of Parliament to Queen street, the brow of the opposite western hill. The police did not confine the crowd to the footpaths, but allowed a double line to be formed in the open street. This arrangement detracted greatly from the effect of the procession, but locomotion was to some extent rendered possible. Here, also, the windows and the convenient roofs were forced to accommodate more than their proper quota of spectators. The shopkeepers had evidently taxed them- selves greatly to oblige their friends. Some of the larger blocks of buildings, such as the Royal Mail block, looked extremely well thus crowded from basement to roof. Elizabeth street presented a similar scene to Bourke street. Up to its junction with the Sydney-road, the line of vehicles and pedestrians was unbroken. Beyond this point the inhabitants of Carlton and Brunswick had lined the fences from an early hour. Children, women, and men, were here alike assembled, waiting patiently during the many hours which elapsed before the cortège came into view. But little attempt was made in town at decoration. Many of the houses in Bourke-street were hung with crape festoons, others displayed mourning banners, and, near Swanston-street, a device was suspended across the road, cherubs holding laurel wreaths. To this the display was confined. The procession moved through the town slowly, and with frequent pauses, more than an hour being occupied in proceeding down Bourke-street. No sound was heard in the crowded streets as the funeral car passed by. A reverential silence was the homage paid by the people to the memory of the explorers.

The length of the procession may be judged of from the fact that when its rear was at the Houses of Parliament, some portion of its advance had turned from Bourke-street into Elizabeth-street. In its order, the programme was not materially departed from. First came a detachment of police clearing the ground, and then the advance guard of the Castlemaine dragoons, followed by the main body of forty men under Captain Anderson. They were succeeded by the Castlemaine Rifle Company, fifty strong, headed by their fine brass band playing the Dead March in Saul. Precedence was given to the Castlemaine over the other volunteer corps, in consequence of Burke's connexion with the town. Had he lived he was to have commanded the dragoons. Their soldier-like appearance, the excellent manner in which they acquitted themselves, and the great service rendered by the rifle band, fully entitled the Castlemaine volunteers to their representative position. The dashing uniform of the cavalry and the lively attire of the rifles, are all strong points in their favour. No portion of the volunteer force is better fitted for purposes of public display. The firing party of police, under Superintendent Lyttelton followed, and after them the state lid was borne aloft, its plumes nodding in the faint breeze which was blowing. The clergy of the various denominations who were in attendance succeeded. About thirty were present, and there was scarcely a denomination which was not represented. The Dean of Melbourne attended in full canonicals. Immediately after the clergy came the funeral-car. The pall-bearers for Burke were Sir W. Stawell, Hon. J. O'Shanassy, Captain Standish, Sir Francis Murphy, Mr. A. Kyte, and Mr. King. For Wills, Mr. Thomas Wills, Dr. Mueller, the Mayor of Melbourne, Mr. A. W. Howitt, Commander Norman, R. Heales, M.L.A., and G. F. Verdon, M.L.A. The chief mourners and the members of the Exploration Committee followed the car, walking three abreast. The members of the Exploration Committee present were, Sir Wm. Stawell, the Hon. D. Wilkie, M.L.C., Dr. Macadam, Dr. Eades, Dr. Mueller, Professor McCoy, Mr. J. Watson, Dr. lffla, Dr. Bleasdale, Dr. Gillbee, Mr. S. Elliott, J.P., M. A. McMillan, Mr. James Smith, and Dr. Embling. The members of the Victorian Contingent Exploring Party came next. There were present: A. W. Howitt, leader; Dr. Murray, A. Aitkin, Weston Phillips, Wm. Williams, H. L. Galbraith, Chas. Phillips, Hy. Burrell, Wm. O'Donnell, G. Tenniel, and also Mr. Wheeler, formerly surgeon to the Contingent Exploration Party. Six mourning coaches followed. The first, which was drawn by four horses, contained Mrs. Dogherty, Burke's nurse; and the others were taken possession of at the last moment by the members of the Melbourne Corporation, who consequently obtained precedence over many bodies originally intended to have preceded them. Directly behind the City Council followed His Excellency's carriage containing Sir Henry Barkly (in official attire) and Captain Bancroft. The foreign consuls succeeded. The nations represented were Denmark, by Mr. J. B. Were; France, A. Truy; Switzerland, S. Rentach: Prussia, M. Michaelis; Russia, J. Damyon; Hamburg, A. Schlostein; Italy, J. Graham; the Netherlands, W. Ploos Van Amstel; and Portugal, - Cooper. Her Majesty's colonial Ministry was represented by the Minister of Public Works, the Hon. J. S. Johnston; the Attorney-General, the Hon. R. D. Ireland; the Minister of Justice, the Hon. J. D. Wood; the Minister of Roads and Railways, the Hon. W. H. F. Mitchell; and the Chief Secretary, the Hon. J. O'Shanassy (pall-bearer.) The vice-chancellor of the University of Melbourne, Dr. Brownless, followed the Ministry, attired in his academical robes. The members of the Legislative Council came next, and those present were - Sir James Palmer, M. Hervey, H. Miller, T. H. Power, and Henty. The members of the Legislative Assembly who followed were - Messrs. K. E. Brodribb, G. Kirk, G. Berry, J. Cathie, R. Strickland, J. Orr, J. Ramsay, P. Lalor, N. Levi, J. D. Owens, M. O'Grady, and M. J. Cummins. A large number of the members of the Royal Society came next, and these were followed by members of the police force. During Burke's connexion with the force, the men became much attached to him, and his brother officers held him in high esteem. Consequently, there was a large muster of both officers and men, anxious to do honour to his memory. Fourteen officers were present, and, including the firing party, 192 men. A detachment of the crew of H.M.C.S. Victoria came next in order. The men numbered about forty. There were present Commander Norman, Lieut. G. A. Woods, Lieut. C. G. Cascoyne, Surgeon S. A. Patterson, Chief Engineer R. Griffith, Sub-Lieut. F. O. Handfield, and others. Following these came the members of the Corporation of Geelong, and of the various suburban and country municipal councils; the various orders of Oddfellows and Foresters, who mustered very strongly; the members of the Ancient Order of Rechabites, U.S., and a large number of citizens, walking eight abreast. A number of cars and carriages closed in as the procession passed, and brought up the rear.

Proceeding at so slow a pace, it was not until a quarter to four o'clock that the firing of the minute guns from the battery of the Volunteer Artillery, stationed in the Royal Park, announced that the procession was approaching the cemetery. Large crowds had assembled at the cemetery gates and in the approaches, to witness the spectacle, and to do honour to the unfortunate explorers. The assemblage was equally orderly and equally reverent in behaviour with that in the city, while the view of the procession, as it moved from the Sydney-road through the well-kept winding approaches, was far more picturesque than any to be obtained elsewhere. The avenue was lined nearly to the Sydney-road with troops, volunteers and regulars, resting upon their arms reversed. The concourse of spectators and the numberless vehicles which had gathered together at this point were thus kept back, and the full effect of the procession could be seen. The regulars were stationed immediately adjacent to the cemetery. The road to the left was lined by the 40th, one hundred strong, under Captain F. C. H. S. Baddeley; and to the right by the Royal Artillery, 170 strong, under Major Dickson; the whole being commanded by Lieut. Colonel Carey. The volunteers mustered altogether 600 men, and were under the orders of Colonel Anderson. The north and south rifle battalions mustered respectively 180 men, and the naval brigade, the artillery, and the engineers were represented. The other staff officers on the ground, besides Colonel Anderson, were Major Hall, Major Pitt, Captain Payne, Captain Button, Captain Snee, and Captain Scott. As the procession drew near the cemetery gates, the cavalry and the firing party filed on either side, the former closing in again, and re-forming after the funeral car had passed. The coffins were slowly borne by the attend- ants to the site of the vault near Sir Charles Hotham's monument, the members of the procession following on foot. The site granted by the trustees is a triangular piece of ground originally reserved for an ornamental plantation. A large gum-tree grows in the centre, and hangs almost directly over the vault. The burial service was performed by the Dean of Melbourne, assisted by the Rev. S. L. Chase, chaplain to the bishop. The Rev. W. N. Guiness, J. Potter, Searle, D. Seddon, R. P. Potter, and other ministers of the Church of England, were also present. The dean officiated from a platform upon which His Excellency the Governor and Sir William Stawell also stood. The burial service of the Church of England was read by the dean with much fervour. With the utterance of the solemn words - "Dust to dust, and ashes to ashes," the coffins were lowered into the vault, the multitude far and near humbly uncovering.

The inscriptions on the coffins were simply as follows:-
Robert O'Hara Burke, Died 30th June, 1861, Aged 40.
William John Wills, Died 30th June, 1861, Aged 27.

These dates have been fixed by King, though of the time of Wills's death he is not able to speak with certainty. The service was simply performed. There was no music, nor was any funeral oration delivered. At its conclusion, the spectators eagerly thronged round the vault, anxious to see lying side by side the remains of those who together had so long suffered and so nobly died. The firing party then stepped forward, the three volleys were given, and the ceremony, and with it the last chapter of the mournful history of the Victorian Exploring Expedition was closed.

The arrangements for the day were satisfactory, the crowding of the streets being the only objectionable feature. Mr. Daley, the undertaker, performed his part of the work zealously and creditably; and the marshal, Mr. Gingell, was successful in his labours. The police arrangements were made by Inspector Hare. No attempt was made to reform the procession after the burial; and the crowd outside the cemetery at once flocked back to town. No accident whatever, it is believed, occurred during the day.

***
The Meeting at St George's Hall

Age (Tuesday, 20 January 1863: 1)
Presentation of addresses to Messrs Kyte, Howitt and Norman by the Exploration Committee.
The citizens are invited to attend a public meeting in St George's Hall to take part in the presentation of addresses. By resolution the Honorary Secretary will give an historical sketch of the Victorian Exploring Expedition from the authentic records. His Honor Sir William Foster Stawell, Knight Chief Justice and Chairman of the Exploration Committee, the Right Worshipful the Mayor of Melbourne and other citizens will address the meeting.

***
Argus (Wednesday, 21 January 1863: 5)
The meeting at St George's Hall, at which His Excellency will preside, and at which presentations will be made to Mr Howitt, Mr Kyte, and Captain Norman, will be held at eight o'clock. Dr Macadam's narrative of the Burke and Wills expedition will be a complete history of its proceedings, compiled from the documents in the possession of the Exploration Committee.

***
Argus (Thursday, 22 January 1863: 6)
At eight p.m. there was a public meeting at St. George's Hall, for the purpose of presenting to Mr. Ambrose Kyte, Mr. Alfred Howitt, and Commander Norman, complimentary addresses from the Exploration Committee, and hearing from Dr. Macadam a history of the Victorian Expedition. Upwards of 2,000 persons were present. On the platform were certain members of the Exploration Committee, some members of the Legislative Assembly and the City Council, and a number of ladies. The notabilities, as they appeared, were treated by the audience with as little consideration as is usually shown by university undergraduates towards illustrious personages on a Commemoration Day. The whilom "unknown donor" of £1,000 to the exploration fund and the gallant commander of the Victoria, were, of course, received with general applause; but the Mayor of Melbourne, strange to say, was greeted with hisses as well as cheers. The same fate awaited the Rabbi Sneersohn when he presented himself, in company with the Rev. M. Rintel. Sir William Stawell and the vice-chancellor of Melbourne University were both honoured with cheers. At five minutes past eight o'clock the audience began to manifest some impatience, and sounds not unlike those which occasionally proceed from the gallery of a theatre when the green curtain is down too long made themselves audible. These, however, were stopped by the appearance of His Excellency the Governor, who was ushered to the platform by Dr. Wilkie, amid a storm of cheers. His Excellency was accompanied by the Bishop of Melbourne, (Dr. Perry), and attended by his aide-de-camp, Captain Bancroft. Dr. Macadam then became visible, but his reception was decidedly equivocal; and the presence immediately afterwards of Mr. Justice Chap- man did not seem to be hailed with general satisfaction. The addresses intended for presentation to Messrs. Kyte, Norman, and Howitt (which have already been published) were exhibited on the platform; they were handsomely illuminated, and enclosed in neat frames.

His Excellency the Governor took the chair, and thus addressed the meeting: "We have celebrated to-day, citizens of Melbourne, the funeral obsequies decreed by Parliament to Victoria's dead explorers. We have borne them through the streets of Melbourne to their long home, and we have left them there 'alone in their glory.' (Cheers.) But we have another duty to perform before these proceedings can terminate-before the Exploration Committee can with propriety be dissolved-and that is to do honour to the living explorers who perilled their lives in the hope of being able to render assistance to Burke and his companions whilst their fate was still involved in mystery. (Hear, hear.) We are met to-night to discharge that duty; and it has also been deemed by the committee an appropriate occasion to testify to one of your fellow-citizens the esteem in which he is held for his generosity in contributing the munificent donation of £1,000 to the exploration fund (cheers) which gave an impetus to the cause, and was in the main degree instrumental in carrying out the design. (Hear, hear.) I did not expect, until comparatively a recent period, to be called upon to take the chair to-night. I thought that it would have been more fitly occupied by Sir Wm. Stawell, who has presided over the Exploration Committee since its first formation, and who has shared, as far as his official occupation permitted him, in all its cares and in all its duties. But when I was informed that my hon. friend felt that, as a member of the committee, he could speak with greater freedom than if he occupied the chair, I felt it was not an occasion on which I ought to shrink from giving my support to the committee. (Cheers.) You are all aware, as is shown by that cheer, that it has become the fashion to ridicule, if not to abuse, the committee. (Hear hear.) Now, as I have not been a member of that body, although I have always been ready when invited by the committee to give it my support and advice in any emergency, and as I do not share its responsibilities, I may perhaps be supposed to be able to form an impartial opinion as to its merits or demerits. (Hear, hear.) Of course, as public men, the members of that committee must be prepared to have their acts exposed to fair criticism. It is quite possible that they have made mistakes-that they have even committed faults.

I believe it was inherent in the circumstances of their constitution that they should do so. If any of us have business to be despatched with promptitude and decision, we should not think of appointing a large number of un-paid and irresponsible gentlemen to perform that duty. But the committee are not chargeable with this. They were requested, at a public meeting of their fellow-citizens, to accept certain duties, and provided they dis- charged those duties to the best of their ability, I hold they are exempt from blame in the matter. It is quite possible, as I have said, that the committee have made mistakes; but I do not know what other means of managing the exploration could have been adopted which would have been free from mistakes, because it was a most difficult and most arduous service, and supposing at a sub- sequent period, when a large amount of money was devoted to exploration, the committee had thought proper to resign their functions and leave the sole responsibility to the Government, what would have been the result ? There is no department of the Government which would have had the leisure or the requisite information to discharge those duties properly. There would have been, perhaps, half a dozen changes in the responsible head of that department during the time the work was going on; and there would undoubtedly have been very great risk that the whole matter of exploration would have become a mere party question. (Hear, hear.) I must say that, taking a dispassionate view of the whole affair, I believe the committee have been blamed for much that they could not have by any possibility averted; and that they have performed their very onerous and arduous duties in a manner which entitles them to the gratitude of this community, whose fame has been very much accelerated throughout the world by the noble part taken at its expense in opening the great continent of Australia. (Hear, hear.) Having made these few remarks with regard to the committee, it is not my province to occupy your time further, but I will call upon my friend Sir William Stawell to open the real proceedings of this evening." (Cheers.)

Sir William Stawell then came forward, and was received with cheers. He spoke as follows: - "Before we begin the work of this meeting allow me to congratulate you, and through you the whole of this country, upon the result of the proceedings of to-day. Many persons - no doubt with the best intentions - were opposed to the holding of a funeral at all. I confess I could not sympathize with them. I know not by what other means a nation could express its respect for the memory of the brave men who have laid down their lives in the service of their country. The erection of a monument is no doubt a proper observance, but how were all those who felt a real sorrow, and who wished to manifest that sorrow, to express a unanimous feeling except by some such proceedings as we have witnessed to-day? I confess I saw with delight thousands, and I may say tens of thousands, assemble, and behave as well as men could behave under the most trying circumstances. The heat was not to be easily borne, the dust was unpleasant, the crush was overwhelming, and yet not one angry word, throughout the whole proceedings, fell from the lips of any one individual. (Cheers.) All seemed animated by one common feeling. (A voice. - "Tis a lie." Great disapprobation, and cries of "Turn him out.") I confess it does seem to me to be not only a grand and glorious, but a touching sight, to see so large a number of men together, all solemn, and anxious to express as earnestly as they could by mute silence their sympathy with the proceedings which have taken place to-day. And yet, all these proceedings were to be stopped because some persons seemed to hold the singular opinion that they were 'a solemn mockery.' My friends, in what did the mockery consist? Is it because the committee - and I am one of them - are supposed to have been guilty of some sins of omission or commission that this great country is to be debarred the opportunity of expressing its sympathy thus publicly? Or is it to be supposed that if a country of this kind, which I might almost call a nation, chooses to hold a national funeral, that it is not necessarily to be conducted with a certain amount of pomp? It could not be otherwise. We must be great on great occasions. (Hear, hear.) I ask every one of you - and I presume almost all of you were present at the funeral - if the ceremony could possibly have been conducted in a manner more consistent with the occasion, or in a manner more solemn or decorous? I confess I don't like to see a genuine expression of grief and sympathy stopped by pseudo-sentimentality; I don't like to see an attempt made to stop a public funeral by calling it a solemn mockery.' I think the expression unseemly - quite as unseemly, indeed, as that interruption which was made just now. (Loud cheers.) We are told to bury our dead in a seemly and becoming manner: and I say that friends at home - the friends of those whom we have attempted this day to honour - will appreciate what we have done. They wished for some expression of sympathy from us. They wished for something tangible - something that would enable them to say, 'The people of Victoria regret the fate of these brave men - they are sorry we have been deprived of them.' (Hear, hear.) Rest assured that the feeling exhibited to day will be most gratifying to the friends of those whose memory we have honoured. (Hear, hear.) His Excellency has told you that we have done all honour that we could to those who are gone; and that the real business of this evening is to endeavour to do honour to those who live amongst us. Years ago, a person whose name was unknown at the time, entrusted me with a cheque for £1,000, for the purposes of exploration. I ventured to announce this at a meeting at the Mechanics' Institute. Numbers who were present scarcely believed me; some might have supposed that the Chief Justice was dreaming; at all events, it was not until I assured them that I had the cheque in my pocket that their doubts were dispelled. That munificent gift was the nucleus around which other contributions gathered, and which ultimately led to the fitting out of the Victorian expedition, and the important discoveries made by the explorers. The man who made that gift was one of yourselves - a man who, by honest industry, had gone on and prospered. (Cheers) Many of us have done so, more or less. Most of us who were here in the early days certainly may have done so, but very few indeed have felt the necessity of paying back the debt which every one of us owes to that country in which we have grown and prospered. For years I desired to make this public. I kept the secret religiously, but I assure you it weighed heavily on my conscience. I was as anxious as man could be to be able to tell the inhabitants of Melbourne and of Victoria generally that this gift had been made by one who was no better able to give than many others amongst us. They were asked. Some contributed and some did not, but none of them followed the example so nobly set them. I think I may say that the recent geographical discoveries, the position which we now occupy as a nation in consequence of those discoveries, and the valuable acquisition made to our territories - I say 'our territories,' because I consider all the Australian colonies so bound together that where one advances all the others advance likewise - are attributable to the gift made by that man. We should never have been able to appeal with confidence to the Government, nor would the Government have been justified in giving us the handsome assistance it did, if we had not been prepared to show that a certain sum had been given by the public generally. And all this, I say, is attributable to one individual. You know him now. And one of the principal objects of our meeting here this evening is to present an address to that individual - Ambrose Kyte. (Loud cheers.) Most, if not all of you, have seen the address which I am about to present, and it will be unnecessary for me to read it to you. I will therefore ask His Excellency to present the address to Mr. Kyte, who is now present. (Cheers.)

His Excellency (addressing Mr. Kyte) said - Mr. Kyte, nothing I could add to the encomiums already bestowed upon you by the Chief Justice, would increase the satisfaction which I am sure you must feel at the proceedings of this evening. If you are, as I feel certain from what has fallen from Sir William Stawell, one of those who "do good by stealth, and blush to find it fame," you will desire me to say as little as possible in putting this address from the Exploration Committee, expressive of their sense of your munificent donation, into your possession, which I have now the pleasure to do. (Cheers.)

Mr. Kyte, in reply, said, nothing could be more gratifying to him than the testimonial he had now the honour to receive. He was thankful that a kind Providence, blessing a life off unremitting labour, had conferred upon him the means of benefiting his fellow creatures. It would always be a source of pride to him to remember that his gift to the cause of exploration originated an enterprize which, though attended with disasters, had been surrounded with glory, and would render the names of the illustrious dead for ever celebrated in the annals of geographical science. He felt that every citizen owed a heavy debt of gratitude to the country which had enriched him, and that he was called upon, instead of spending his fortune in distant lands and purchasing with it the means of indolent self-indulgence, to apply some portion of it to promote the welfare and accelerate the progress of the community among whom he had risen to opulence. This had been one of his (Mr. Kyte's) principles of action, and to that principle he should continue to adhere. If he had often chosen secret channels for the distribution of what he had to spare, it had been because he was anxious not to expose himself to the charge of ostentation, and because he was of opinion that acts of liberality, or benevolence, could not, as a general rule be too unobtrusively performed. The document which had been presented to him would be preserved with pride, and transmitted to his children, in the hope that it would increase the affection which, he trusted, they would entertain for the memory of their father, and that it would operate as an incentive to them to deserve and obtain the good opinion of their fellow citizens. (Mr. Kyte then proceeded to state the reasons why he had initiated the movement.) He looked upon the sum of £1,000 as nought of itself, but it derived its value from the fact that it was the donation of a working man who, out of the proceeds of his hard earnings and years of toil, had made a sacrifice as soon as it was convenient for him to do so. Out of that sacrifice had arisen a monument which would never be obliterated. (Applause.) He believed that with him alone had originated the idea of fitting out a Victorian Exploration Expedition. He challenged contradiction on this point, and he did so because he claimed for the working classes the honour of having, under a kind Providence, been the means of laying the foundation of new colonies - of adding to the diadem of Queen Victoria an additional lustre, of which he was sure Her Majesty would not be ashamed. (Cheers.) Having said this much in reference to his own share in initiating the Exploration Expedition, he would explain the reason why he had concealed his name as the donor of the £1,000.

His knowledge of human nature told him that if he were to announce himself as the donor, all sorts of charges would be laid at his back. He knew, at the same time, that the anonymous - that anything approaching to secrecy or mystery - would have a certain beneficial effect, and therefore he determined not to disclose his name. It might be asked what could induce him, an unscientific man, scientific in nothing but making money, it might be asked what induced him to give £1,000 to further the cause of exploration? Were he to strive to find on answer for one thousand years, he could only say in all serious solemnity, that the idea was given to him from above, - that it was the Almighty, alone who put it into his heart. (Sensation) He believed that he had been an instrument in God's hand. (Cries of "Time, time.") He would now give way, to allow other gentlemen to address the meeting. (Applause.)

His Excellency. - The next address is to be presented to the leader of the Victorian Relief Party - Mr. Alfred Howitt. (Loud cheers.) The committee hoped that the address would have been presented to him by Mr. John King, the survivor of the expedition, whose life he was instrumental, under Divine Providence, of saving; but the fatigue of the day, and the excitement of feeling, have been such as to prevent Mr. King from attending and Mr. Ligar, the surveyor-general, has kindly undertaken to present the address to Mr. Howitt, on his behalf. (Applause.)

Mr. Ligar, after expressing his regret that King was unable to attend, remarked that of Mr. Howitt he could say that a better explorer did not exist - that he had carried out everything which he had undertaken with credit to himself, and with safety to every animal and person that formed part of his expedition. (Laughter, cries of "Bravo," and applause.) After unsuccessfully attempting for some time to obtain a further hearing, Mr. Ligar said that if ever Victoria required the services of another explorer, she could not select a better man than Mr. Howitt. (Cheers.) He knew him to be a good man, and one well fitted to be entrusted with the care and responsibility of an exploration party. Mr. Ligar was proceeding to make some further remarks, but he was compelled, by expressions of impatience on the part of the audience, to conclude abruptly.

His Excellence, taking the address from Mr. Ligar, presented it to Mr. Howitt, amidst enthusiastic and reiterated applause. In doing so, His Excellency remarked that the address was intended as an acknowledgement of his services in the cause of exploration. Those services had thoroughly tested his ability, his prudence, his courage, and his patience as an explorer. (Cheers.) He (the Governor) entirely concurred with the surveyor-general in saying that if Victoria should again resume the work of exploration she need not go beyond her own sons for an experienced and accomplished leader of an expedition. (Loud cheering.)

Mr. Howitt received the address, and presented himself in front of the platform to make his acknowledgements. He was again greeting with hearty demonstrations of applause. He regretted that he felt unable fully to express his thanks for the great honour which had been done him. As a record of a melancholy and memorable occasion he should always deeply value the address, and more especially as a proof that the Exploration Committee were satisfied with his services, and believed that he had carried out the mission entrusted to him to the best of his power. (Cheers.) The assurance of this, so flatteringly expressed, was the most enduring reward, that he could wish to receive, and he returned earnest thanks for it, for himself and for his companions, whose hearty co-operation had enabled him to carry out the objects of his mission successfully. (Hear, hear.) It might be interesting to the meeting to hear a few facts connected with his last journey, which occupied rather more than twelve months. (Hear, hear.) The former journey, when he was providentially enabled to rescue Mr. King on Cooper's Creek, after the deaths of Burke, Wills, and Gray (hear, hear), was probably so well known that he need scarcely refer to it, more particularly but he would refer to some peculiarities of the interior of the continent which had come under his notice during his last journey, which might, perhaps, be of interest to the meeting as well as useful to others who might be tempted to proceed into the interior in search of country fit for settlement. The interior of the continent, as far as he had seen it, was subject to great extremes of drought and heavy tropical rains and floods, the latter proceeding generally from the eastern coast ranges and forming the creeks or rivers now known as Cooper's Creek, Willis's Creek, &c., running from the south- west to the north-eastern coast ranges. It was to these floods, which came down at uncertain periods, that the great beds of permanent water found in certain places in the interior owed their origin, and it was from this reason that the routes across the continent had to be taken from the southern to the northern coast. It was during his latter journey that he noticed one part of Cooper's Creek appeared to possess every requisite for a central position, towards which expeditions from Victoria, South Australia, and New South Wales could direct their steps, and from which they could again diverge northward if desirable. It was at this place that he formed a depot, at which his party was maintained for about eight months, and he found that it fully answered all his expectations. It was a place at which exploring parties might always depend upon obtaining water, and which was centrally situated for all the Australian colonies. He believed that it would in future times prove of the greatest service to parties going through the country. From the uncertain periods at which the floods in the interior of the country occurred, probably for many years to come the country could only be crossed to the north at particular times - namely, immediately after the floods. When these flood-waters were collected, and as long as they existed, there was no more difficulty in taking large quantities of stock along the tracks to the north coast than there was in taking them from the southern settlements to the outskirts of civilisation, (Hear, hear.) He wished to make special reference to another matter. There appeared to be considerable misunderstanding as to the place were Gray's remains were found. (Hear, hear.) Whenever he was able to do so, he had endeavoured to obtain reliable information upon this subject. The first step he took was to compare the position given by McKinlay with the position which he (Mr. Howitt) believed to be the place where Gray was buried by Burke and Wills, on their re- turn journey to Cooper's Creek. He found that they were so very nearly the same place, that he had no doubt whatever in his own mind as to their being the same. The information which he obtained from his intercourse with the natives also led him to believe that this was the place where the "whitefellow" died and was buried by his friends, on their way from Cooper's Creek. On returning to South Australia, and meeting Mr. McKinlay in Adelaide, he had a conversation with him, and McKinlay at that time stated that he had no doubt what- ever that the remains which he found were the remains of Gray; and, to the best of his memory, McKinlay also said that he believed the remains had been disinterred by the natives, and afterwards reburied. The circumstantial evidence which he (McKinlay) obtained from the appearances round the grove, led him to form this conclusion, which, however, he had since modified. Respecting the rumours which had been in circulation concerning statements said to have been made by Mr. King, he (Mr. Howitt) wished to say that the whole of the statements which he wrote down at Mr. King's dictation on Cooper's Creek, in reference to the melancholy end of Burke and Wills, and other matters connected with the expedition, be believed to be circumstantially correct. (Applause.) He had no doubt that these statements were correct, whatever reports had been subsequently circulated. ("Hear, hear;" and a Voice. - "Gray's remains were far from Cooper's Creek.") The place where he believed Gray to have been buried was sixty or seventy miles from Cooper's Creek; and at the time he was there, there was no water in that direction. (A Voice. - "That is no excuse.") He took particular care to make inquiries of the natives about the remains of Gray, his instructions not authorizing him to bring the remains back. ("Oh, oh;" applause, and cries of "That is no excuse.") His instructions were to bring in the remains of Burke and Wills, and he had always made it a fundamental rule to carry out his instructions whatever they were. (Cheers, mingled with cries of "That is no excuse," and other expressions of disapprobation.) It only remained for him to express his sincere acknowledgements to the Exploration Committee for the consideration with which his suggestions had at all times been received, and the prompt assistance which they had given him on all occasions, which had materially contributed to the final success of the expedition which he had had the honour to command. (Loud cheers.)

Mr. Justice Chapman was next called upon to make a few remarks prefatory to the presentation of the address to Capt. Norman. He was received with considerable applause, mingled, however, with great hissing, and cries of "Mornington." He attempted for some moments to address the meeting, but the hissing grew louder and more determined, and he, therefore, resumed his seat.

Captain Norman, on coming forward to receive the address at the hands of His Excellency, was greeted with hearty cheering.

His Excellency, in making the presentation, said, - You have already had the pleasure of receiving the thanks both of the Imperial and of the colonial Governments for the admirable prudence and foresight with which you managed the expedition sent to the Gulf of Carpentaria to the relief of the missing explorers. (Cheers.) As a British seaman, I know that your motto is duty rather than glory, but when glory comes by following the strict path of duty it cannot but be acceptable to any human being, and I feel assured that you will receive this address, thus publicly tendered to you in the presence of the citizens of Melbourne, with the utmost possible pleasure and satisfaction. (Cheers.)

Captain Norman, in returning thanks, was again enthusiastically cheered. He assured the assembly that he received the address with great pleasure, and that he had not power to give full effect to the feelings of his heart. (Applause.) Having been called upon by the Governor, by the Government of the colony, and by the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society, to proceed to the relief of the missing explorers, it was necessary, as the commander of his expedition, that he should proceed to exercise a little caution in organzing what was requisite to bring his party safely back again. He did exercise that caution; and with the greatest liberality, the Government of Mr. Heales - (immense applause, followed by a cry of "Three cheers for Heales," which were immediately given.) With the greatest liberality, the Government allowed him to order whatever he considered necessary to ensure the safety of his expedition, and this had enabled him, and the officers who assisted him, to carry out the mission with which he was entrusted, and to return without the loss of a man. (Applause.) He had but a few words more to say. (A voice - "Bravo! Jack." Loud laughter.) The sad misfortune which befel his consort, the Firefly, was the cause of much delay in the expedition arriving at its destination, and also caused a few privations to be undergone; but, nevertheless, he and they who were associated with him fulfilled their duty. (Hear, hear.) It was most gratifying to him to receive an address of thanks in the presence of such a large assembly; and he would conclude by repeating that he sincerely felt the honour which had been done him. (Cheers.)

His Excellence then announced that Dr. Macadam would give a history of the labours of the Exploration Committee, and the progress of Australian discovery under their auspices. Dr. Macadam accordingly stood forward, but was received with mingled cheers and hisses. The latter, indeed, continued so long that it was not until His Excellency interfered, and appealed to the meeting to give the speaker a fair and impartial hearing, that Dr. Macadam was allowed to proceed. He then complained that he and the Exploration Committee had been grossly misrepresented, and maintained that this was a fitting opportunity for the truth to be made plain. The committee had been continually held up to public indignation, on no grounds whatever. (Cries of "Oh.") He declared this on the best authority, because the subject of exploration was one in which he had lived for the last four and a half years, and I held that it was most discouraging, after so much labour by night and by day, after exerting himself to such an extent in order that the public might be kept constantly informed on all matters connected with exploration - indeed, not a telegram or despatch had he received without communicating it to every metropolitan newspaper, no matter at what hour of the night it might be received, in order that the public might be in possession of the particulars the following morning - it was most discouraging, he said, to be subjected to all the scandals which had been heaped upon him, to have lies circulated with respect to him, and to have to appeal to a jury of his country for redress. (Cheers.) He had not solicited this opportunity of meeting the citizens. He had come forward merely at the request of the Exploration Committee. (Hear, hear.) It had been asked, "Why did the Royal Society, and why, under heaven, did Dr. Macadam, have anything to do with the Expedition?" (A Voice - "Who starved Burke? and cries of "Turn him out.") The Royal Society, or the Philosophical Institute, as it was originally called, was the first body to direct the attention of the Victorian colonists, to the fact that, while the other colonies had incurred an expenditure not only of money but life in exploring the interior of Australia, the richest of the group had done nothing. Some six years ago, his colleague in the committee, Dr. Wilkie, brought forward a motion, having for its object an endeavour to explore the continent from east to west. Various deputations then waited upon the Government to suggest that from £2,000 to £2,500 might be granted for the purpose. They were not listened to, and two years passed away. At length Sir William Stawell brought the welcome intelligence of the £1,000, which had been already alluded to. (Cheers.) The condition imposed, by Mr. Kyte was that they should raise £2,000 within twelve months by private subscription. They managed to raise £2,400 and, on the strength of the money then collected, they went to Parliament, and Parliament voted them £6,000. They were then in a position to proceed to the appointment of a leader. This was no easy matter, though now that Burke and Wills had traced their green line across the continent, it might be looked upon differently. Mr. Gregory, the present surveyor-general of Queensland, who had for seventeen years engaged in exploration, told them that, as far as he know, the centre of Australia was nothing but a desert. And had not Sturt said that the whole interior was impenetrable? Had not Mitchell turned his back to it? Had not Leichhardt perished there? Had not Kennedy and others lost their lives in attempting to cross it? And how could anybody of gentlemen constituted as the Exploration Committee was think of hurling into the interior anybody of explorers without proper judgement and consideration? At all events, the committee had not any known explorer at their command; and they actually had to resort to public advertisements. Some fourteen candidates came forward. Among them was one gentleman who had written against the committee, and denounced Mr. Burke from first to last (cries of "No" and "Yes"). Instead of feeling as a man should when displaced by one of superior power and ability, that unsuccessful candidate assumed the position of a coward. (cries of "Oh" and "Hear, hear"). The committee wanted a leader for the expedition, and a sub-committee was appointed to choose a man. It was considered indispensable that the leader should possess astronomical knowledge, to be able to determine the exact position of the party day by day. Mr. Burke at that time did not possess the astronomical qualification, and it was no disparagement to him to say this (Hear, hear). The election of a leader was postponed for three months, in order that the candidates might acquire that which at the time was thought to be an indispensable qualification. At the end of three months the candidates were again before the sub-committee. One gentleman considered that he was entitled to precedence on the ground that he could obviate the want of water in the interior of the colony. His plan for doing this was to erect a tank, support it on saplings at the edge of the Murray, and by means of a hose and a machine carry the water right away across the whole continent. (Great laughter.) That gentleman must have had a very curious notion of the rotundity of the earth. (Renewed laughter.) Ultimately, the committee found that no candidate was sufficiently grounded in astronomical know- ledge, and it was decided to select Burke to be the leader, for his courage, his bravery, and his powers of leadership (cheers), and to supplement him by sending an astronomer with him. This led to the appointment of Wills. (Renewed cheering, and a Voice. - "Go it, Kilmarnoch." Laughter.) Mr. Burke was therefore appointed as the leader; and to his honour it deserved to be mentioned that he requested the committee should not for a moment entertain the question as to the salary which should be spared him. He was ready to set out on the expedition if he could obtain leave of absence from the police force but he expressly stated that he did not ask for any increase upon his ordinary pay. (Cheers.) He (Dr. Macadam) was prepared to take his full share of any blame which might attach to the Exploration Committee in the management of the expedition; but, looking back upon all that had transpired, there was nothing which was a source of dis- quietude to his conscience. (Hear, hear.) He proceeded to refer to attacks which were made in some of the newspapers upon the character and qualifications of Burke immediately after his appointment as leader of the expedition, and he especially defended him from the charge of being illiterate and ignorant. Dr. Macadam next alluded to the difficulties with which Burke had to contend at the very outset. It might, he remarked, be very easy now to organize an expedition which should be safe from all accident, be- cause the services of such men as Howitt, Landsborough, McKinlay, Walker, and King could be obtained; but Burke had actually to advertise for men to cross the continent with him, and had inspected no less than 700 applicants from whom to make a selection as best he could. It was necessary that he should appoint a second in command, and that post was given to Mr. Landells. (Hear, hear.) He (Dr. Macadam) should be ashamed if he made that meeting the medium of attacking any man; but out of all the correspondence which had taken place relative to the conduct of Landells, he believed that the gentleman who stated that he showed the white-feather spoke the truth. (Applause, and expressions of dis- approbation.) Dr. Macadam proceeded to refer to the report which was made by Mr. Landells to the Exploration Committee, on his return to Melbourne after leaving the expedition. It was a curious fact that, although that report was written in a good round hand, all the portions which exaggerated the conduct of Mr. Burke were interlined.

Mr. Landells, who was in the body of the room, here came forward in front of the platform, and asked Dr. Macadam to read the whole of the report. ("Hear, hear," cries of "Read it all," and uproar.)

His Excellency suggested that Dr. Macadam should be allowed to conclude his remarks, and that Mr. Landells should have the opportunity of addressing the meeting afterwards.

Dr. Macadam read portions of the report; and continued by saying that the ostensible cause of the quarrel between Mr. Landells and Mr. Burke was as to the management of the camels. He contended that Mr. Burke was justified in ordering Wills to drive the camels across the Darling; and next remarked that Landells was succeeded by Dr. Beckler, who left the party because he believed that Mr. Landells had been ill-used. The speaker briefly glanced at the return of Ferguson, and the dismissal of other parties; and proceeded to say that poor Burke was left at the Darling with a supposed desert staring him in the face, and two of his best men having abandoned him. In this extremity, Mr. Burke placed confidence in a man who afterwards betrayed him - Mr. Wright. (Applause, mingled with some expressions of disapprobation.) Mr. Burke divided his party, and took Mr. Wright, who conducted him halfway to Cooper’s Creek.

They travelled that distance in nine days and Burke then said to Wright, "Go back for stores, and follow me up at once." Burke travelled the remainder of the distance with extraordinary rapidity, and reached Cooper's Creek in nine days afterwards. Wright went back to the Darling, and, for reasons which he could not explain to the Royal Commission appointed to investigate the matter, he did not move from there to follow up the instructions of his leader for three months. ("Oh, oh," and applause.) He did not even report himself to the Exploration Committee until Mr. Hodgkinson came down at the end of December. Mr. Hodgkinson, to their great surprise, then informed the committee that Wright wanted means to purchase sheep and drive them up the country to Cooper's Creek. The committee had evidence to prove that Wright left his camp and his party on the Darling day after day to look out for land for squatters, instead of doing his duty to the man whose life was in his hands. ("Hear, hear," and applause.) Mr. Hodgkinson arrived in Melbourne late at night, and he (Dr. Macadam), at once summoned the Exploration Committee, and Mr. Hodgkinson was despatched back again next morning. Mr. Wright waited at the Darling and alleged that he, had not sufficient carrying power - that the camels were not sufficient; and he actually remained for seventeen days at rest within a few days' journey of Cooper's Creek, although he had every kind of provision and clothing for the poor men who were starving. ("Hear, hear," and "Oh, oh.") He had it from Mr. King that when Mr. Burke was about to leave Cooper's Creek, he said - "I will ask Brahe, if Mr. Wright comes up to-night or to-morrow, to follow us on." Was it not evident from this that Burke expected Wright daily? - (Mr. McDonough, a member of Burke's party, who was on the platform, here exclaimed, "I heard him say the words.") On the faith of that expectation Burke started on his voyage across the continent. It would be unnecessary to follow him in that long journey. The meeting knew how all the difficulties he anticipated melted before him, though it was not, as some per- sons imagined, nice pasture country to travel through. Mr. Walker could not pursue the route which Burke travelled. He stuck fast in the very mountain range which Burke crossed leading his camels with his hands. King said, before Mr. Walker's return, that for 120 miles the journey was of a most difficult character, and that he was afraid Walker's horses would not be able to cross these barrier ranges. However, Burke reached the coast and saw the tidal wave; and then, having accomplished his mission, he turned back. Dr. Macadam then described Burke's return, and the dis- asters which resulted from the desertion by Brahe of the camp at Cooper's Creek. He then asked whether the Exploration Committee, or any body of men sitting 800 miles away, could be responsible for those disasters? And yet the press would not allow the truth to be ascertained. It was sufficient for them to say that the Exploration Committee were the murderers of these men and that Dr. Macadam was the chief murderer of the lot. (Cries of "Shame.") The speaker went on to insist that the portion of Central Australia which had been thoroughly investigated by Victoria, at so great an expenditure of money, and so frightful a sacrifice of life, should be annexed to the colony with a view to its future colonisation. He concluded by saying that the following words from Bailey's Festus, slightly modified, seemed appropriate reflections upon the services of Burke and Wills:- "Men whose deeds possess us like a passion, through every limb and the whole heart. Whose rich dark ivy thoughts, sunned over with love, flourish around the deathless stems of their names. Whose names are ever on the world's broad tongue, like sounds on the falling of a force. Men whom we twine our love round like an arch of triumph as they pass on their way to glory and immortality." Dr. Macadam then resumed his seat amidst much cheering.

Mr. Landells then got upon the platform, and attempted to address the audience, but he was received with such loud hooting, that he was soon compelled to desist. He defended himself from the charge of cowardice, and denied that his report had been materially altered. He also charged the Exploration Committee with having kept some of his letters from the public, and he wished to read a report of the meeting of the committee at which his report was received, which appeared in The Argus of November 15, 1860, but the meeting refused to hear him, and he was obliged to sit down, one man calling out, amidst loud laughter. "Take it to the gorilla."

The Mayor next addressed the meeting. He appealed to their honour and candour as to whether, after hearing the explanation of Dr. Macadam, they could fairly lay a tittle [sic] of blame to the Exploration Committee. (Loud cries of "No, no," and cries of "Gray.'") Mr. Howitt had already informed them that his instructions were to bring the remains of Burke and Wills, and those instructions were given to him in accordance with a resolution adopted by the Parliament. The bones of Gray lay in the interior of the continent, where he fell, and his honour was there also. (Cheers.) He thought it would have been better to have allowed the remains of Burke and Wills to have remained in the desert also, but the Parliament of the country had decided otherwise. Twenty months ago, the play began, and now the curtain fell. His Excellency Sir Henry Barkly was the Governor when the cavalcade proceeded from the Royal Park; he was the Governor now, and long might he remain so. (Loud and repeated cheers.) His Worship concluded by asking the meeting to give three cheers for the Governor.

The call was responded to with great enthusiasm, the whole meeting rising and cheering for some moments.

His Excellency, in acknowledging the compliment, remarked that he thought the meeting must feel that Dr. Macadam had amply vindicated the proceedings of the Exploration Committee. (Cheers.) That night turned a page in the history of Victoria - a page which recorded the noble efforts which had been made by this country in behalf of the exploration of the interior of the continent. The page which recorded his connexion with this colony must soon follow, but he assured them that he should always rejoice that his name would not only be associated with the mountains and rivers of the interior, but that it would be associated with the great and stirring events which had arisen out of that exploration. (Applause.) His Excellency concluded by thanking the meeting for the orderly way in which they had behaved, under very exciting circumstances, and after the exciting events of the day. (Cheers.)

The meeting then separated, at half-past ten o'clock.

Friday, 23 January 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee.
Present: Stawell (chair), Wilkie, Watson, Eades, Ligar.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 255. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 23 January 1863.

Tuesday, 27 January 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee.
Present: Stawell (chair), Smith, Ligar, Watson, Eades, Wilkie.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 256. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 27 January 1863.

Monday, 2 February 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee, held at the Government Laboratory at 4.30 pm.
Present: Smith (chair), Gillbee, Wilkie, Macadam.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 258. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 2 February 1863.

Monday, 23 February 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee.
Present: Smith (chair), Gillbee, Wilkie, Iffla, Macadam.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 259. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 23 February 1863.

Wednesday, 25 February 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to McDonald & Co dated 25 February 1863.
• Letter to Moore dated 25 February 1863.

Friday, 27 February 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to Mayne dated 27 February 1863.
• Letter to Watson dated 27 February 1863.

Monday, 9 March 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee, held at 5.00 pm.
Present: Wilkie (chair), Eades, Gillbee, Watson, Macadam.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 261. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 9 March 1863.

Wednesday, 11 March 1863.
Related archives:
SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to Cunningham dated 11 March 1863.

SLV MS13071, Box 2079/3, RSV EC miscellaneous outward correspondence, February-October 1860 and July 1861-November 1872. 126p.

• Letter to Cunningham dated 11 March 1863. 1p.

Monday, 23 March 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee.
Present: Eades (chair), Wilkie, Macadam.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 263. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 23 March 1863.

Thurssday, 2 April 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2079/3, RSV EC miscellaneous outward correspondence, February-October 1860 and July 1861-November 1872. 126p.

• Letter dated 2 April 1863. 2p.

Monday, 20 April 1863
Related archives:
SLV MS13071 Box FB33: Memorandum from John Macadam, Melbourne 20 April 1863 on behalf of the EC confirming the appointment of Frederick Singell as Marshal of the Burke and Wills Funeral procession. 1p.

SLV MS13071 Box FB33 Letter from EC, Melbourne, 20 April 1863, to Frederick Singell, Castlemaine, thanking him for his services as Marshall of the funeral service for Burke and Wills. 1p.

Wednesday, 22 April 1863
Related archive: SLV MS13071 MCFB1 Contract drawn up between the RSV EC and Huxley, Parker & Co for work required in the erection of a monument in the Melbourne General Cemetery. Dated 22 April 1863. 5p.

Wednesday, 20 May 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2079/3, RSV EC miscellaneous outward correspondence, February-October 1860 and July 1861-November 1872. 126p.

• Letter to Moore dated 20 May 1863. 1p.

27 June 1863 - James McCulloch appointed as Chief Secretary, replacing the O'Shanassy Ministry (to 6 May 1868).

Thursday, 6 August 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee.
Present: Wilkie (chair), Iffla, Mueller, Smith.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 265. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 6 August 1863.

10th August, 1863.
Ordinary Meeting of the Royal Society of Victoria.
His Excellency, Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., &c. &c. &c, in the chair.

The following contributions were laid on the table:

Stuart's, Landsborough's, and M'Kinlay's Exploring Expeditions across the Continent of Australia, 1 volume - presented by the Exploration Committee.

Tuesday, 11 August 1863.
In the Legislative Council, Dr Macadam gave notice that, on Thursday next, he should move an address in favour of £1,000 being placed on the Estimates for the preparation of a full illustrated narrative of the history of the Burke and Wills Exploring Expedition.

Monday, 17 August 1863.
The Seventh and Final Report of the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria was drawn up by Drs Wilkie, Mueller and Macadam, and adopted, after amendment, by the Committee on the 17th August, and received at an Ordinary Meeting of the Institute held on 31st August 1863.

Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 267. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 17 August 1863.

Thursday, 20 August 1863.

Macadam writes to Chief Secretary McCulloch stating

...I may add that all the Expedition papers, note books, sketches, maps and records are carefully preserved and it is earnestly hoped that the Government will liberally support the Exploration Committee in giving to the world this accumulated mass of valuable geographical and other information in a suitable and permanent form.

Monday, 24 August 1863.
Related archive: SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/5, RSV EC outward correspondence August 1860 to July 1869.

• Letter to Chief Secretary [McCulloch] dated 24 August 1863.

Monday, 31 August 1863.
Ordinary Meeting of the Royal Society of Victoria.
Sir Redmond Barry, Vice-President, in the chair.

Seventh and Final Report of the Exploration Committee laid before the Society. The report adopted.

Dr Macadam said that with the exception of a few financial details, the labours of the Exploration Committee terminated that night with the presentation of their Seventh and Final Report. He then read the report. [In fact, the Exploration Committee would not finalise business for another ten years].

Dr Macadam then moved the adoption of the report, and, in doing so, he mentioned that a few days before the report was placed in the hands of the Chief Secretary (McCulloch), he (Dr Macadam) proposed a motion in the Legislative Assembly, in favour of £1,000 being granted for the publication of the history of the Victorian exploration expeditions. The Treasurer (George Frederic Verdon, 1834-1896), however, recommended him to withdraw the motion at that time, and bring the matter under the notice of the Government privately. He accepted that suggestion, and the Government printer had since been in communication with him, at the insistence of the Ministry in order to make a calculation of the expense of publishing in a permanent and illustrated form the history of the several expeditions. Though the matter was still sub judice, he might state that several members of the Ministry appeared to take a warm interest in it, and to concur with him as to the propriety of having the history of Victorian exploration published in two or three volumes, and illustrated with the aid of the magnificent materials which the Committee had at hand. If this were done at the insistence of the Government - which he hoped would be the case - a contribution would be made to geographical knowledge which would reflect honour on the Royal Society and upon the colony at large. Dr Iffla seconded the motion for the adoption of the report.

***
The Age, Tuesday 1 September 1863: 6.
An ordinary meeting of the Royal Society of Victoria was held, yesterday evening, at the society's hall, Latrobe street-east. There was a good attendance of members. The chief business of the meeting was the presentation of a valedictory address to the president of the society, his Excellency Sir Henry Barkly. At eight o'clock Sir Henry Barkly had not arrived, and, on the motion of Dr Wilkie, Sir Redmond Barry, vice-president of the society, took the chair.

Dr Macadam brought under the notice of the society the Seventh and Final Report of the Exploration Committee of the Royal Society of Victoria, bound up with the six preceding Progress Reports of the same committee, he observed that, with the exception of some trifling matters of financial detail, the labors of the Exploration Committee had now terminated. The committee conceived that it was their duty to furnish the Government with some complete statement of their transactions, and of the history of the main and collateral explorations of Northern Australia in connection with this colony. With this view they had prepared this Seventh and Final Report for presentation with the others. This report, with the letter accompanying it to the Chief Secretary, he read to the meeting. The letter concluded by saying that:

all papers, note books, sketches, maps, and records are carefully preserved and it is earnestly hoped that the Government will liberally support the committee in giving to the world this accummulated mass of valuable geographical and other information in a suitable and permanent form.

The report contained a brief review of the expeditions commanded by Landsborough, Walker, McKinlay and Howitt; their progress and results; an acknowledgement of the readiness and zeal which his Excellency had played in assisting the committee; and of the valuable assistance afforded by Mr Heales and Mr O'Shanassy. It concluded with a few words in vindication of the committee from the aspersions cast upon it, and in review of the benefits to be derived to the British race from the exploration and pathway opened up through the centre of Australia, once believed to be the site of an uninhabitable desert.

Appended to the report was a summary of expenditure in connection with the several expeditions amounting to £26,139/19s/10d, which amount it was stated, did not include £3,000 spent in the purchase of camels, nor the outlay incurred in sending the Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Other appendices were the instructions issued to Burke and his associates, prior to their departure from Melbourne, and a list of articles to the value of £2,608 supplied from the Government stores as outfit to the expedition, with medicines to the value of £240, horses to the amount of, £708, and various expenses to tho amount of £158; the total outlay being something like £35,000 by this colony in favor of exploration.

At the conclusion of reading the report, Dr Macadam stated that, in compliance with a recommendation from the Government, he had withdrawn his motion for the appropriation of a sum of money for the publication of the results of the Burke and Wills and collateral expeditions; since which time the Government printer had been in communication with him, at the instance of the Government, to ascertain the expense which would, be incurred in publishing, in a proper illustrated form, the results of the expeditions (Hear, hear). The matter was now sub-judice, but he believed that several members in the Ministry took a warm interest in the matter, and he trusted it would result in something being done — an honor to the society and all belonging to it.

He moved the adoption of the report. Dr Iflla seconded it. The Chairman, in putting its adoptipn to the meeting, bore testimony to the perseverance of the committee through good report and evil report, and observed that the good achieved by the expedition was modestly stated in the report as one for the British race, but might have been with even greater correctness stated as one for the whole human race. The report was adopted unanimously.

The Secretary called the attention of the society to a large and beautifully executed map of Australia, showing all the results of the several exploring expeditions up to the present time, presented by Mr Proeschel; and the thanks of the society were given by acclamation to the donor.

Friday, 27 November 1863.
Meeting of the Exploration Committee.
Present: Stawell (chair), Wilkie, Mueller, Gillbee, Smith, McCoy.

Government Printer John Ferris calculated the cost of 1,000 copies of a three volume production would be £2,400.
F F Bailliere offered to print the history in two volumes upon the receipt of £1,000 from the government.

Related archives:
SLV MS13071, Box 2088B/1, RSV EFC and RSV EC minute book, 1858-1873. 1 bound volume, ms., 295 numbered pages.

• p. 269. Minutes of a meeting of the EC, 27 November 1862 [sic, 1863].

SLV MS13071, Box 2081/2a.

• Summary of EC minutes, 27 November 1863-26 February 1870. 7p.

Monday, 7 December, 1863.
Ordinary Meeting of the Royal Society of Victoria.
The Hon. John Macadam, M.D., Vice-President, in the chair.

Annual Report for 1863.
By the issue of its final report, the Exploration Committee has brought its long protracted work of anxiety and responsibility to a close during this session.

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